Dopamine and full-field illumination activate D1 and D2-D5-type receptors in adult rat retinal ganglion cells.
ABSTRACT Dopamine can regulate signal generation and transmission by activating multiple receptors and signaling cascades, especially in striatum, hippocampus, and cerebral cortex. Dopamine modulates an even larger variety of cellular properties in retina, yet has been reported to do so by only D1 receptor-driven cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) increases or D2 receptor-driven cAMP decreases. Here, we test the possibility that dopamine operates differently on retinal ganglion cells, because the ganglion cell layer binds D1 and D2 receptor ligands, and displays changes in signaling components other than cAMP under illumination that should release dopamine. In adult rat retinal ganglion cells, based on patch-clamp recordings, Ca(2+) imaging, and immunohistochemistry, we find that 1) spike firing is inhibited by dopamine and SKF 83959 (an agonist that does not activate homomeric D1 receptors or alter cAMP levels in other systems); 2) D1 and D2 receptor antagonists (SCH 23390, eticlopride, raclopride) counteract these effects; 3) these antagonists also block light-induced rises in cAMP, light-induced activation of Ca(2+) /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and dopamine-induced Ca(2+) influx; and 4) the Ca(2+) rise is markedly reduced by removing extracellular Ca(2+) and by an IP3 receptor antagonist (2-APB). These results provide the first evidence that dopamine activates a receptor in adult mammalian retinal neurons that is distinct from classical D1 and D2 receptors, and that dopamine can activate mechanisms in addition to cAMP and cAMP-dependent protein kinase to modulate retinal ganglion cell excitability. J. Comp. Neurol. 520:4032-4049, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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ABSTRACT: Neurons undergo long term, activity dependent changes that are mediated by activation of second messenger cascades. In particular, calcium-dependent activation of the cyclic-AMP/Protein kinase A signaling cascade has been implicated in several developmental processes including cell survival, axonal outgrowth, and axonal refinement. The biochemical link between calcium influx and the activation of the cAMP/PKA pathway is primarily mediated through adenylate cyclases. Here, dual imaging of intracellular calcium concentration and PKA activity was used to assay the role of different classes of calcium-dependent adenylate cyclases (ACs) in the activation of the cAMP/PKA pathway in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Surprisingly, depolarization-induced calcium-dependent PKA transients persist in barrelless mice lacking AC1, the predominant calcium-dependent adenylate cyclase in RGCs, as well as in double knockout mice lacking both AC1 and AC8. Furthermore, in a subset of RGCs, depolarization-induced PKA transients persist during the inhibition of all transmembrane adenylate cyclases. These results are consistent with the existence of a soluble adenylate cyclase that plays a role in calcium-dependent activation of the cAMP/PKA cascade in neurons.PLoS ONE 01/2009; 4(11):e7877. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the eyes of lower vertebrates, retinal photoreceptors and melanin pigment granules of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) exhibit characteristic retinomotor movements in response to changes in ambient illumination and to signals from an endogenous circadian clock. We previously reported that 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine (dopamine) mimicked the effect of light on these movements in photo-receptors and RPE cells of green sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus, by interacting with D2 dopaminergic receptors. Here, we report that dopamine also mimics the effect of light on cone and RPE retinomotor movements in bullfrogs, Rana catesbeiana, i.e., dopamine induces cone contraction and RPE pigment dispersion. Dopamine induced cone contraction in isolated dark-adapted bullfrog retinas incubated in constant darkness in the presence of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX). This effect of dopamine was inhibited by a D2 but not a D1 antagonist and mimicked by a D2 but not a D1 agonist. These results suggest that induction of cone contraction by dopamine is mediated by D2 dopaminergic receptors and that cone adenylate cyclase activity is inhibited. Thus, dopamine acts via the same type of receptor in both bullfrog and green sunfish retinas to induce cone contraction. In contrast, dopamine influences RPE retinomotor movement via different receptors in fish and bullfrog. Dopamine induced light-adaptive pigment dispersion in isolated dark-adapted bullfrog RPE-eyecups incubated in constant darkness in normal Ringer's solution. Because the retina was not present, these experiments demonstrate a direct effect of dopamine on bullfrog RPE. This effect of dopamine on bullfrog RPE was inhibited by a D1 but not a D2 antagonist and mimicked by a D1 but not a D2 agonist. Furthermore, agents that increase the concentration of intracellular cyclic AMP also induced pigment dispersion in dark-adapted bullfrog RPE-eyecups incubated in the dark. These results suggest that dopamine induces pigment dispersion in bullfrog RPE via D1 dopaminergic receptors. Thus, dopamine acts via different receptors on bullfrog (D1) versus green sunfish (D2) RPE to induce pigment dispersion. In addition, inhibitor studies indicate that pigment dispersion is actin dependent in teleost but not in bullfrog RPE. Dopamine-induced pigment dispersion was inhibited by cytochalasin D in isolated RPE sheets of green sunfish but not in RPE-eyecups of bullfrogs. Together, these observations indicate that dopamine mimics the effect of light on cone and RPE retinomotor movements in both fish and bullfrogs. However, in the RPE, different receptors mediate the effect of dopamine, and different cytoskeletal mechanisms are used to affect pigment transport.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)Journal of Neurochemistry 05/1990; 54(4):1367-78. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Calmodulin is abundant in the central nervous system, including the retina. However, the localization of calmodulin in the retina has not been described in detail. We therefore decided to investigate calmodulin localization in retinae from six vertebrate species, by using immunohistochemical labeling with four different rabbit polyclonal antibodies against calmodulin. The localization of calbindin-D28k, another calcium-binding protein already well described in retina, was compared. We found that calmodulin distribution is more highly conserved among species, contrasting with calbindin variability. The most striking result emerging is that calmodulin could not be detected in photoreceptors although other layers are intensely calmodulin-immunoreactive, casting doubt about a direct role of calmodulin in phototransduction. Horizontal cells are weakly calmodulin-immunoreactive, bipolar cells are calmodulin-immunoreactive except in turtle retina, numerous amacrine and ganglion cells are labeled in all species, and the fiber layer is always labeled. These data demonstrate that, while the calmodulin distribution in retina is similar among vertebrate species, selective differences in localization can be detected not only among the same cell types in different species but also among different cell types in the same species. The results showing differences in calmodulin immunoreactivity among cell types also provide further evidence that calmodulin expression in eukaryotes is not constitutive, in the sense that not every cell expresses similar levels of calmodulin.The Journal of Comparative Neurology 01/1992; 314(4):750-62. · 3.66 Impact Factor