Pregnancy-specific glycoprotein 1a activates dendritic cells to provide signals for Th17-, Th2-, and Treg-cell polarization

Centro de Investigaciones en Bioquímica Clínica e Inmunología (CIBICI-CONICET), Departamento de Bioquímica Clínica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina.
European Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 4.03). 06/2012; 42(6):1573-84. DOI: 10.1002/eji.201142140
Source: PubMed


Because of their plasticity and central role in orchestrating immunity and tolerance, DCs can respond to pregnancy-specific signals, thus promoting the appropriate immune response in order to support pregnancy. Here, we show that pregnancy-specific glycoprotein (PSG1a), the major variant of PSG released into the circulation during pregnancy, targets DCs to differentiate into a subset with a unique phenotype and function. This semi-mature phenotype is able to secrete IL-6 and TGF-β. PSG1a also affected the maturation of DCs, preventing the up-regulation of some costimulatory molecules, and inducing the secretion of TGF-β or IL-10 and the expression of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) in response to TLR-9 or CD40 ligation. In addition, PSG1a-treated DCs promoted the enrichment of Th2-type cytokines, IL-17-producing cells, and Treg cells from CD4(+) T cells from DO11.10 Tg mice. Moreover, in vivo expression of PSG1a promoted the expansion of Ag-specific CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3(+) Treg cells and IL-17-, IL-4-, IL-5-, and IL-10-secreting cells able to protect against Listeria monocytogenes infection. Taken together, our data indicate that DCs can be targeted by PSG1a to generate the signals necessary to mount an appropriate, well-balanced, and effective immune response able to protect against invading pathogens while at the same time being compatible with a successful pregnancy.

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Available from: Laura Cervi, Dec 03, 2014
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    • "PSGs isolated from the human placenta have an inhibitory effect on phytohaemagglutinin or allogeneically stimulated lymphocytes [7], [8]. Subsequently, it was shown that recombinant mouse and human PSGs induce production of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFβ1) by monocytic, macrophage and dendritic lineages in vitro and in vivo [9]–[14]. In the human, elevated PSG levels are associated with improved symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis during pregnancy [15]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Pregnancy-specific glycoproteins (PSGs) are immunoglobulin superfamily members encoded by multigene families in rodents and primates. In human pregnancy, PSGs are secreted by the syncytiotrophoblast, a fetal tissue, and reach a concentration of up to 400 ug/ml in the maternal bloodstream at term. Human and mouse PSGs induce release of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 and TGFβ1 from monocytes, macrophages, and other cell types, suggesting an immunoregulatory function. RGD tri-peptide motifs in the majority of human PSGs suggest that they may function like snake venom disintegrins, which bind integrins and inhibit interactions with ligands. We noted that human PSG1 has a KGD, rather than an RGD motif. The presence of a KGD in barbourin, a platelet integrin αIIbβ3 antagonist found in snake venom, suggested that PSG1 may be a selective αIIbβ3 ligand. Here we show that human PSG1 binds αIIbβ3 and inhibits the platelet - fibrinogen interaction. Unexpectedly, however, the KGD is not critical as multiple PSG1 domains independently bind and inhibit αIIbβ3 function. Human PSG9 and mouse Psg23 are also inhibitory suggesting conservation of this function across primate and rodent families. Our results suggest that in species with haemochorial placentation, in which maternal blood is in direct contact with fetal trophoblast, the high expression level of PSGs reflects a requirement to antagonise abundant (3 mg/ml) fibrinogen in the maternal circulation, which may be necessary to prevent platelet aggregation and thrombosis in the prothrombotic maternal environment of pregnancy.
    PLoS ONE 02/2013; 8(2):e57491. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0057491 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has long been believed that there is no immune interaction between mother and conceptus during pregnancy. This concept changed after evidence was provided that the maternal immune system is aware of the semiallogeneic conceptus and develops strategies to tolerate it. Since then, finely regulated mechanisms of active tolerance toward the fetus have been described. This Special Issue of the American Journal of Reproductive Immunology deals with these mechanisms. It begins with the description of minor histocompatibility antigens in the placenta; it further goes through adaptive immune responses toward paternal fetal antigens, mostly concentrating on regulatory T cells and molecules modulating the Th1/Th2 balance. The participation of antibody-producing B cells in normal and pathological pregnancies is also discussed. This introductory chapter resumes the concepts presented throughout the Issue and discusses the clinical applications raised from these concepts.
    American Journal Of Reproductive Immunology 02/2013; 69(4). DOI:10.1111/aji.12097 · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Among several explanations for the acceptance of the fetus, the one that suggests that the maternal immune system is suppressed or modified has been the subject of many studies. Thus, it has been proposed that the cells of innate immune system might be able to distinguish the pregnant from the non-pregnant state producing a signal, the so-called signal P. We have previously proposed that pregnancy-specific glycoprotein 1a (PSG1a), a representative member of the main glycoprotein family secreted by placental trophoblast, may modulate the activation of antigen-presenting cells promoting the T-cell shift of the maternal cell immunity toward a less harmful phenotype. In this review, we summarize current knowledge concerning the contribution of pregnancy-specific glycoprotein 1a (PSG1a) to modulate the maternal innate and adaptive immune response in order to assure a successful pregnancy.
    American Journal Of Reproductive Immunology 02/2013; 69(4). DOI:10.1111/aji.12089 · 2.44 Impact Factor
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