Novel betulin derivatives as antileishmanial agents with mode of action targeting type IB DNA topoisomerase
ABSTRACT Toward developing antileishmanial agents with mode of action targeted to DNA topoisomerases of Leishmania donovani, we have synthesized a large number of derivatives of betulin. The compound, a natural triterpene isolated from the cork layer of Betula spp. plants exhibits several pharmacological properties. Three compounds (disuccinyl betulin, diglutaryl dihydrobetulin, and disuccinyl dihydrobetulin) inhibit growth of the parasite as well as relaxation activity of the enzyme type IB topoisomerase [Leishmania donovani topoisomerase I (LdTOP1LS)] of the parasite. Mechanistic studies suggest that these compounds interact with the enzyme in a reversible manner. The stoichiometry of these compounds binding to LdTOP1LS is 1:1 (mole/mole) with a dissociation constant on the order of ∼10(-6) M. Unlike CPT, these compounds do not stabilize the cleavage complex; rather, they abrogate the covalent complex formation. In processive mode of relaxation assay condition, these compounds slow down the strand rotation event, which ultimately affects the relaxation of supercoiled DNA. It is noteworthy that these compounds reduce the intracellular parasite burden in macrophages infected with wild-type L. donovani as well as with sodium antimony gluconate resistant parasite (GE1). Taken together, our data suggest that these betulin derivatives can be exploited as potential drug candidates against threatening drug resistant leishmaniasis.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
- "The reactions were rapidly quenched using stop solution and kept on ice. The gels were stained with ethidium bromide (EtBr) (0.5 mg/mL) and the amount of supercoiled monomer DNA band fluorescence were quantified by integration using Gel Doc 2000 under UV illumination (Bio-Rad Quantity One Software), as described previously  "
ABSTRACT: DNA opoisomerase I is a potential chemotherapeutic target. Here, we designed and synthesized a library comprising of hydantoin and thiohydantoin derivatives and tested them against human and Leishmania Top1. One of the thiohydantoin compounds with substituted thiophenyl as the central moiety (compound 15) exhibited potent inhibition of human Top1 (HTop1) through stabilization of Top1-DNA cleavage complexes and showed selective anticancer activity against human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) and breast carcinoma (MCF-7) cell lines. Molecular modeling studies with HTop1 rationalized the inhibitory mechanism of compound 15. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 08/2015; 102:540-551. DOI:10.1016/j.ejmech.2015.08.032 · 3.45 Impact Factor
Article: Redox-Active Antiparasitic Drugs[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Parasitic diseases affect hundreds of millions of people worldwide and represent major health problems. Treatment is becoming extremely difficult due to the emergence of drug resistance, the absence of effective vaccines, and the spread of insecticide-resistant vectors. Thus, identification of affordable and readily available drugs against resistant parasites is of global demand. RECENT ADVANCES: Susceptibility of many parasites to oxidative stress is a well-known phenomenon. Therefore, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or inhibition of endogenous antioxidant enzymes would be a novel therapeutic approach to develop antiparasitic drugs. This article highlights the unique metabolic pathways along with redox enzymes of unicellular (Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei, Leishmania donovani, Entamoeba histolytica, and Trichomonas vaginalis) and multicellular parasites (Schistosoma mansoni), which could be utilized to promote ROS-mediated toxicity. Enzymes involved in various vital redox reactions could be potential targets for drug development. The identification of redox-active antiparasitic drugs along with their mode of action will help researchers around the world in designing novel drugs in the future.Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 11/2011; 17(4):555-82. DOI:10.1089/ars.2011.4436 · 7.41 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Niranthin, a lignan isolated from the aerial parts of the plant Phyllanthus amarus, exhibits a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities. In the present study, we have shown for the first time that niranthin is a potent anti-leishmanial agent. The compound induces topoisomerase I-mediated DNA-protein adduct formation inside Leishmania cells and triggers apoptosis by activation of cellular nucleases. We also show that niranthin inhibits the relaxation activity of heterodimeric type IB topoisomerase of L. donovani and acts as a non-competitive inhibitor interacting with both subunits of the enzyme. Niranthin interacts with DNA-protein binary complexes and thus stabilizes the 'cleavable complex' formation and subsequently inhibits the religation of cleaved strand. The compound inhibits the proliferation of Leishmania amastigotes in infected cultured murine macrophages with limited cytotoxicity to the host cells and is effective against antimony-resistant Leishmania parasites by modulating upregulated P-glycoprotein on host macrophages. Importantly, besides its in vitro efficacy, niranthin treatment leads to a switch from a Th2- to a Th1-type immune response in infected BALB/c mice. The immune response causes production of nitric oxide, which results in almost complete clearance of the liver and splenic parasite burden after intraperitoneal or intramuscular administration of the drug. These findings can be exploited to develop niranthin as a new drug candidate against drug-resistant leishmaniasis.EMBO Molecular Medicine 10/2012; 4(10):1126-43. DOI:10.1002/emmm.201201316 · 8.67 Impact Factor