In vitro and in vivo repeatability of abdominal diffusion-weighted MRI
ABSTRACT Objective To study the in vitro and in vivo (abdomen) variability of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements at 1.5 T using a free-breathing multislice diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI sequence. Methods DW MRI images were obtained using a multislice spin-echo echo-planar imaging sequence with b-values=0, 100, 200, 500, 750 and 1000 s mm(-2). A flood-field phantom was imaged at regular intervals over 100 days, and 10 times on the same day on 2 occasions. 10 healthy volunteers were imaged on two separate occasions. Mono-exponential ADC maps were fitted excluding b=0. Paired analysis was carried out on the liver, spleen, kidney and gallbladder using multiple regions of interest (ROIs) and volumes of interest (VOIs). Results The in vitro coefficient of variation was 1.3% over 100 days, and 0.5% and 1.0% for both the daily experiments. In vivo, there was no statistical difference in the group mean ADC value between visits for any organ. Using ROIs, the coefficient of reproducibility was 20.0% for the kidney, 21.0% for the gallbladder, 24.7% for the liver and 28.0% for the spleen. For VOIs, values fall to 7.7%, 6.4%, 8.6% and 9.6%, respectively. Conclusion Good in vitro repeatability of ADC measurements provided a sound basis for in vivo measurement. In vivo variability is higher and when considering single measurements in the abdomen as a whole, only changes in ADC value greater than 23.1% would be statistically significant using a two-dimensional ROI. This value is substantially lower (7.9%) if large three-dimensional VOIs are considered.
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ABSTRACT: Diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging is an emerging technique in body imaging that provides indirect information about the microenvironment of tissues and lesions and helps detect, characterize, and follow up abnormalities. Two main challenges in the application of DW imaging to body imaging are the decreased signal-to-noise ratio of body tissues compared with neuronal tissues due to their shorter T2 relaxation time, and image degradation related to physiologic motion (eg, respiratory motion). Use of smaller b values and newer motion compensation techniques allow the evaluation of anatomic structures with DW imaging. DW imaging can be performed as a breath-hold sequence or a free-breathing sequence with or without respiratory triggering. Depending on the mobility of water molecules in their microenvironment, different normal tissues have different signals at DW imaging. Some normal tissues (eg, lymph nodes, spleen, ovarian and testicular parenchyma) are diffusion restricted, whereas others (eg, gallbladder, corpora cavernosa, endometrium, cartilage) show T2 shine-through. Epiphyses that contain fatty marrow and bone cortex appear dark on both DW images and apparent diffusion coefficient maps. Current and emerging applications of DW imaging in pediatric body imaging include tumor detection and characterization, assessment of therapy response and monitoring of tumors, noninvasive detection and grading of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, detection of abscesses, and evaluation of inflammatory bowel disease. © RSNA, 2014.Radiographics 05/2014; 34(3):E73-88. DOI:10.1148/rg.343135047
- Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden) 05/2013; 53(1). DOI:10.3109/0284186X.2013.798428
Article: Advances in pediatric oncology MRI[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Refined stratification of disease is thought to result in better survival from childhood malignant disease while minimizing the adverse effects of anticancer therapies. There is a potential for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to contribute to such stratification by improved tissue characterization, anatomical depiction, staging, and assessment of early treatment response. Recent advances in pediatric MRI outside the central nervous system (CNS) are reviewed in this context. The focus is on new applications for conventional MRI and on clinical implementation of tissue-specific and quantitative techniques. This area is largely unexplored, and potential directions for research are indicated.Acta Radiologica 07/2013; 54(9). DOI:10.1177/0284185113494038