In vitro and in vivo repeatability of abdominal diffusion-weighted MRI.
ABSTRACT Objective To study the in vitro and in vivo (abdomen) variability of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements at 1.5 T using a free-breathing multislice diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI sequence. Methods DW MRI images were obtained using a multislice spin-echo echo-planar imaging sequence with b-values=0, 100, 200, 500, 750 and 1000 s mm(-2). A flood-field phantom was imaged at regular intervals over 100 days, and 10 times on the same day on 2 occasions. 10 healthy volunteers were imaged on two separate occasions. Mono-exponential ADC maps were fitted excluding b=0. Paired analysis was carried out on the liver, spleen, kidney and gallbladder using multiple regions of interest (ROIs) and volumes of interest (VOIs). Results The in vitro coefficient of variation was 1.3% over 100 days, and 0.5% and 1.0% for both the daily experiments. In vivo, there was no statistical difference in the group mean ADC value between visits for any organ. Using ROIs, the coefficient of reproducibility was 20.0% for the kidney, 21.0% for the gallbladder, 24.7% for the liver and 28.0% for the spleen. For VOIs, values fall to 7.7%, 6.4%, 8.6% and 9.6%, respectively. Conclusion Good in vitro repeatability of ADC measurements provided a sound basis for in vivo measurement. In vivo variability is higher and when considering single measurements in the abdomen as a whole, only changes in ADC value greater than 23.1% would be statistically significant using a two-dimensional ROI. This value is substantially lower (7.9%) if large three-dimensional VOIs are considered.
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ABSTRACT: Breast imaging represents a relatively recent and promising field of application of quantitative diffusion-MRI techniques. In view of the importance of guaranteeing and assessing its reliability in clinical as well as research settings, the aim of this study was to specifically characterize how the main MR scanner system-related factors affect quantitative measurements in diffusion-MRI of the breast. In particular, phantom acquisitions were performed on three 1.5 T MR scanner systems by different manufacturers, all equipped with a dedicated multi-channel breast coil as well as acquisition sequences for diffusion-MRI of the breast. We assessed the accuracy, inter-scan and inter-scanner reproducibility of the mean apparent diffusion coefficient measured along the main orthogonal directions ( ) as well as of diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI)-derived mean diffusivity (MD) measurements. Additionally, we estimated spatial non-uniformity of (NU ) and MD (NUMD) maps. We showed that the signal-to-noise ratio as well as overall calibration of high strength diffusion gradients system in typical acquisition sequences for diffusion-MRI of the breast varied across MR scanner systems, introducing systematic bias in the measurements of diffusion indices. While and MD values were not appreciably different from each other, they substantially varied across MR scanner systems. The mean of the accuracies of measured and MD was in the range [-2.3%,11.9%], and the mean of the coefficients of variation for and MD measurements across MR scanner systems was 6.8%. The coefficient of variation for repeated measurements of both and MD was < 1%, while NU and NUMD values were <4%. Our results highlight that MR scanner system-related factors can substantially affect quantitative diffusion-MRI of the breast. Therefore, a specific quality control program for assessing and monitoring the performance of MR scanner systems for diffusion-MRI of the breast is highly recommended at every site, especially in multicenter and longitudinal studies.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e86280. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging is an emerging technique in body imaging that provides indirect information about the microenvironment of tissues and lesions and helps detect, characterize, and follow up abnormalities. Two main challenges in the application of DW imaging to body imaging are the decreased signal-to-noise ratio of body tissues compared with neuronal tissues due to their shorter T2 relaxation time, and image degradation related to physiologic motion (eg, respiratory motion). Use of smaller b values and newer motion compensation techniques allow the evaluation of anatomic structures with DW imaging. DW imaging can be performed as a breath-hold sequence or a free-breathing sequence with or without respiratory triggering. Depending on the mobility of water molecules in their microenvironment, different normal tissues have different signals at DW imaging. Some normal tissues (eg, lymph nodes, spleen, ovarian and testicular parenchyma) are diffusion restricted, whereas others (eg, gallbladder, corpora cavernosa, endometrium, cartilage) show T2 shine-through. Epiphyses that contain fatty marrow and bone cortex appear dark on both DW images and apparent diffusion coefficient maps. Current and emerging applications of DW imaging in pediatric body imaging include tumor detection and characterization, assessment of therapy response and monitoring of tumors, noninvasive detection and grading of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, detection of abscesses, and evaluation of inflammatory bowel disease. © RSNA, 2014.Radiographics 34(3):E73-88. · 2.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Purpose To determine the variability of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in various anatomic regions in the upper abdomen measured with magnetic resonance (MR) systems from different vendors and with different field strengths. Materials and Methods Ten healthy men (mean age, 36.6 years ± 7.7 [standard deviation]) gave written informed consent to participate in this prospective ethics committee-approved study. Diffusion-weighted (DW) MR imaging was performed in each subject with 1.5- and 3.0-T MR systems from each of three vendors at two institutions. Two readers independently measured ADC values in seven upper abdominal regions (left and right liver lobe, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, and renal cortex and medulla). ADC values were tested for interobserver differences, as well as for differences related to field strength and vendor, with repeated-measures analysis of variance; coefficients of variation (CVs) and variance components were calculated. Results Interreader agreement was excellent (intraclass coefficient, 0.876). ADC values were (77.5-88.8) ×10(-5) mm(2)/sec in the spleen and (250.6-278.5) ×10(-5) mm(2)/sec in the gallbladder. There were no significant differences between ADC values measured at 1.5 T and those measured at 3.0 T in any anatomic region (P >.10 for all). In two of seven regions at 1.5 T (left and right liver lobes, P < .023) and in four of seven regions at 3.0 T (left liver lobe, pancreas, and renal cortex and medulla, P < .008), intervendor differences were significant. CVs ranged from 7.0% to 27.1% depending on the anatomic location. Conclusion Despite significant intervendor differences in ADC values of various anatomic regions of the upper abdomen, ADC values of the gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, and kidney may be comparable between MR systems from different vendors and between different field strengths. © RSNA, 2013 Online supplemental material is available for this article.Radiology 02/2014; 270(2):454-63. · 6.34 Impact Factor