Delay in the diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: typical symptoms are frequently overlooked.
ABSTRACT The morbidity and mortality of individuals with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) can be reduced by early diagnosis of MEN1 and related endocrine tumors. To find factors contributing to early diagnosis, we collected clinical information on MEN1 patients through a MEN study group, "MEN Consortium of Japan" and analyzed the time of initial symptom-dependent detection of parathyroid tumors, gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEPNETs) and pituitary tumors, and that of tumor detection-dependent MEN1 diagnosis in 560 patients. Main tumors were identified up to 7.0 years after symptoms appeared and there was no difference in age at the diagnosis of GEPNETs alone between probands and family members. In patients with typical symptoms (peptic ulcers, urolithiasis, fasting hypoglycemia, bone fracture/loss and amenorrhea), the mean interval between symptom manifestation and tumor detection was extended up to 9.6 years. In particular, 21.7% (5/23) of patients with amenorrhea were diagnosed with pituitary tumors in under one year. In patients with peptic ulcers (from parathyroid tumors or GEPNETs) and urolithiasis (from parathyroid tumors), the interval was positively correlated with age at tumor detection. The interval between tumor detection and MEN1 diagnosis was also prolonged to approximately four years in patients with fasting hypoglycemia (from GEPNETs) and amenorrhea. A substantial delay in the diagnosis of symptom-related tumors and subsequent MEN1 and inadequate screening of GEPNETs in family members were indicated. A greater understanding of MEN1 may assist medical practitioners to make earlier diagnoses, to share patients' medical information and to give family members sufficient disease information.
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ABSTRACT: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is less well recognized in Asian countries, including Japan, than in the West. The clinical features and optimal management of MEN1 have yet to be clarified in Japan. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical features of Japanese patients with MEN1. We established a MEN study group designated the 'MEN Consortium of Japan' in 2008, and asked physicians and surgeons to provide clinical and genetic information on patients they had treated. Of 680 registered patients, 560 were analysed. Clinical and genetic features of Japanese patients with MEN1 were examined. Primary hyperparathyroidism, gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEPNET), and pituitary tumours were seen in 94·4%, 58·6% and 49·6% of patients, respectively. The prevalence of insulinoma was higher in the Japanese than in the West (22%vs 10%). In addition, 37% of patients with thymic carcinoids were women, while most were men in western countries. The MEN1 mutation positive rate was 91·7% in familial cases and only 49·3% in sporadic cases. Eight novel mutations were identified. Despite the availability of genetic testing for MEN1, the application of genetic testing, especially presymptomatic diagnosis for at-risk family members appeared to be insufficient. We established the first extensive database for Asian patients with MEN1. Although the clinical features of Japanese patients were similar to those in western countries, there were several characteristic differences between them.Clinical Endocrinology 09/2011; 76(4):533-9. · 3.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN-I) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by endocrinopathies involving the anterior pituitary gland, parathyroid glands, and pancreas. The long-term prognosis for patients affected with this disorder is uncertain. To better characterize this prognosis, we performed a retrospective review of all patients with MEN-I treated at a single institution during the period 1951-1997. A group of 233 patients served as the study population. Their records were analyzed for confirmation of diagnosis, treatments received, long-term survival, and cause of death. Altogether, 108 eight male patients (46%) and 125 female patients (54%) were identified. At the conclusion of the study, 164 (70%) were alive and 69 (30%) were deceased, with a median follow-up for patients alive at last contact of 13.4 years (range < 1 month to 54.3 years). The cause of death was reliably obtained in 60 patients. Of these patients, 17 (28%) died of causes related to MEN-I, most commonly metastatic islet cell tumors (10 patients). The remaining patients died of causes unrelated to MEN-I, most commonly coronary artery disease and nonendocrine malignancies (14% each). The overall 20-year survival of MEN-I patients was 64% (95% CI was 56-72%), and that of an age- and gender-matched upper Midwest population was 81% (p < 0.001). Patients with MEN-I appear to be at increased risk of premature death. Earlier diagnosis and treatment of potentially malignant pancreatic islet cell neoplasms may result in a decrease of this premature mortality.World Journal of Surgery 11/2000; 24(11):1437-41. · 2.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This is a consensus statement from an international group, mostly of clinical endocrinologists. MEN1 and MEN2 are hereditary cancer syndromes. The commonest tumors secrete PTH or gastrin in MEN1, and calcitonin or catecholamines in MEN2. Management strategies improved after the discoveries of their genes. MEN1 has no clear syndromic variants. Tumor monitoring in MEN1 carriers includes biochemical tests yearly and imaging tests less often. Neck surgery includes subtotal or total parathyroidectomy, parathyroid cryopreservation, and thymectomy. Proton pump inhibitors or somatostatin analogs are the main management for oversecretion of entero-pancreatic hormones, except insulin. The roles for surgery of most entero-pancreatic tumors present several controversies: exclusion of most operations on gastrinomas and indications for surgery on other tumors. Each MEN1 family probably has an inactivating MEN1 germline mutation. Testing for a germline MEN1 mutation gives useful information, but rarely mandates an intervention. The most distinctive MEN2 variants are MEN2A, MEN2B, and familial medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). They vary in aggressiveness of MTC and spectrum of disturbed organs. Mortality in MEN2 is greater from MTC than from pheochromocytoma. Thyroidectomy, during childhood if possible, is the goal in all MEN2 carriers to prevent or cure MTC. Each MEN2 index case probably has an activating germline RET mutation. RET testing has replaced calcitonin testing to diagnose the MEN2 carrier state. The specific RET codon mutation correlates with the MEN2 syndromic variant, the age of onset of MTC, and the aggressiveness of MTC; consequently, that mutation should guide major management decisions, such as whether and when to perform thyroidectomy.Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 01/2002; 86(12):5658-71. · 6.31 Impact Factor