Utilization of low-molecular-weight heparin prophylaxis in pediatric and adolescent trauma patients.
ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to use trauma registry data to describe the number and characteristics of patients 21 years or younger receiving thromboprophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin at 2 pediatric and 2 adult level 1 trauma centers. Among 706 patients, the average age was 18.5 years, and 94.6% were hospitalized at adult centers. The most common injuries were lower extremity fractures (35.6%) and head injuries (20.4%). Major bleeding was reported in 3 patients (0.4%), and thrombotic events were reported in 15 patients (2.1%). Despite a lack of scientific evidence, low-molecular-weight heparin prophylaxis is being used in young trauma patients (primarily those 14 years or older). Prospective multicenter studies are needed to accurately describe the risks and benefits of low-molecular-weight heparin prophylaxis in young trauma patients, thereby identifying those who truly benefit from this intervention.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to review evidence-based literature addressing pertinent questions about venous thromboembolism (VTE) after traumatic injury in children. Data were obtained from English-language articles identified through Pubmed published from 1995 until November 2012, and from bibliographies of relevant articles. Studies were included if they contributed evidence to one of the following questions. In the pediatric traumatic injury population: (1) What is the overall incidence of VTE? (2) Is age (adolescence versus pre-adolescence) associated with higher VTE incidence? (3) Which risk factors are associated with higher VTE incidence? (4) Does mechanical and/or pharmacological prophylaxis impact outcomes? Eighteen articles were included in this systematic review. The evidence regarding each question was evaluated, graded by author consensus, and summarized. The overall incidence of VTE is low. Older (>13years) and more severely injured patients are at higher VTE risk. Additional factors including injury type or presence of a central venous catheter also place a patient at higher VTE risk. Implementation of a risk-based clinical practice guideline for VTE prophylaxis has been associated with reduced symptomatic VTE at one institution. Randomized, prospective trials analyzing outcomes of VTE prophylaxis in pediatric trauma victims are needed.Journal of Pediatric Surgery 06/2013; 48(6):1413-1421. DOI:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2013.02.059 · 1.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective: To synthesize the existing literature on benefits and risks of anticoagulant use after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Design: Systematic review. A literature search was performed in MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Health Star, and CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) on October 11, 2012, and updated on September 2, 2013, using terms related to TBI and anticoagulants. Main Measures: Human studies evaluating the effects of post-TBI anticoagulation on venous thromboembolism, hemorrhage, mortality, or coagulation parameters with original analyses were eligible for the review. PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guideline was followed throughout the conduct of the review. Results: Thirty-nine eligible studies were identified from the literature, of which 23 studies with complete information on post-TBI anticoagulant use and patient outcomes were summarized in this review. Meta-analysis was unwarranted because of varying methodological design and quality of the studies. Twenty-one studies focused on the effects of pharmacological thromboprophylaxis (PTP) post-TBI on venous thromboembolism and/or progression of intracranial hemorrhage, whereas 2 randomized controlled trials analyzed coagulation parameters as the result of anticoagulation. Conclusion: Pharmacological thromboprophylaxis appears to be safe among TBI patients with stabilized hemorrhagic patterns. More evidence is needed regarding effectiveness of PTP in preventing venous thromboembolism as well as preferred agent, dose, and timing for PTP.Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 07/2014; Publish Ahead of Print. DOI:10.1097/HTR.0000000000000077 · 3.00 Impact Factor