Long-term oncological and continence outcomes after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: a single-centre experience.
ABSTRACT Study Type - Therapy (case series) Level of Evidence 4 What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Over the past decade, minimally invasive laparoscopic radical prostatectomy and more recently robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy have been introduced and have proven equally effective compared with open surgery in terms of mid-term cancer control and complication rates. Because long-term data is lacking, open prostatectomy is still considered the 'gold standard' by some authors, who argue that minimally invasive approaches have to measure up to the excellent long-term results of open surgery. This study represents one of the largest series (1845 patients) of minimally invasive radical prostatectomy with extended follow-up (11.3 years) and detailed data on oncological outcome and postoperative incontinence. It therefore supplies previously lacking information on these details for minimally invasive prostate surgery and provides important information for patient counselling. OBJECTIVE: • To investigate biochemical recurrence (BCR) rates and data on postoperative incontinence in a large laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) cohort with extended follow-up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: • BCR and independent predictors of BCR were identified using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis of 1845 patients who underwent LRP from 1999 to 2007. • Urinary incontinence was evaluated by pads per day and stratified as follows: 0-1 pad: no incontinence; 2-3 pads: mild incontinence; and ≥3 pads: severe incontinence. RESULTS: • Organ-confined disease, extraprostatic extension, seminal vesicle invasion and lymph node metastasis were present in 71.3%, 20.5%, 6.7% and 3.2% of patients, respectively. The positive surgical margin rate was 29.2%. • Postoperatively, 74.9% of the patients were continent, while 9.2% had mild and 15.9% severe incontinence. • The mean follow-up was 5 years with a maximum follow-up of 11.3 years. • There were 51 overall deaths and six deaths from prostate cancer. The 5-year, 8-year and 10-year BCR-free survival rates were 83.9%, 78.6% and 75.6%, respectively. • On univariate analyses preoperative D'Amico risk classification, pathological tumour stage, postoperative Gleason sum and surgical margin status were predictors of BCR (P < 0.001). • On multivariable analysis, D'Amico classification, Gleason sum (P < 0.001), postoperative tumour stage (P < 0.001), nodal status (P < 0.001) and surgical margin status (P= 0.002) were independent predictors of BCR. CONCLUSIONS: • LRP offers excellent long-term functional and oncological results with a low incidence of BCR for patients with localized disease. • These results could be used for patient counselling before robot-assisted laparascopic prostatectomy (RALP) until long-term follow-up data for RALP is available.
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ABSTRACT: Pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) has been performed during radical prostatectomy in nearly all patients with clinically localized prostatic carcinoma (PCa), while the specific regions that needed to be removed demonstrated bifurcation among urologist. However, clinical studies comparing extended PLND (ePLND) with standard PLND (sPLND) and limited PLND (lPLND) reveal conflicting, or even opposing results. All controlled trials comparing ePLND with sPLND or lPLND were identified through comprehensive searches of the PubMed, Cochrane Library and Embase databases. A systematic review and meta-analysis of these studies were then performed. Eighteen studies with a total of 8,914 patients were included. Regardless of being compared with sPLND or lPLND, ePLND significantly improved LN retrieval [ePLND vs. sPLND: weighted mean difference (WMD) 11.93, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 9.91-13.95, p < 0.00001; ePLND vs. lPLND: WMD 8.27, 95 % CI 3.53-13.01, p = 0.0006] and the detection of more LNs positive of metastasis [risk ratio (RR) 3.51, 95 % CI 2.14-5.75, p < 0.00001; RR 3.50, 95 % CI 2.20-5.55, p < 0.00001, respectively]. EPLND decreased the complication rate, but the differences were not statistically significant (RR 1.52, 95 % CI 0.87-2.65, p = 0.14; RR 1.52, 95 % CI 0.67-3.45, p = 0.32, respectively). Operating time, estimated blood loss, length of hospital stay and biochemical recurrence (BCR) were statistically insignificant between techniques. ePLND shows benefits associated with increased LNs yield, LNs positivity, and safety, significantly with no risk of side effects. However, ePLND did not decrease BCR. Additional high-quality, well-designed randomized controlled trials and comparative studies with long-term follow-up results are required to define the optimal procedure for patients with clinically localized PCa.Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 12/2013; · 2.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Laparoscopy introduction has dramatically changed urology. Novel techniques, such as laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) and natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), might also have substantial influence. This 2012 survey evaluated present laparoscopy use, its appraisal among urologic surgeons, laparoscopy training, and use of new techniques. Results were compared to the previous surveys, demonstrating the 10-year development of laparoscopy. A detailed questionnaire regarding demographic data, laparoscopy use, attitudes concerning laparoscopy, and novel techniques was send to 424 departments in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. Procedures performed in 25 indications were quantitatively evaluated. The response rate was 63 % (269). Eighty-six percent of the respondents reported performing laparoscopy, compared to 54 % in 2002. Only 16 % expected economic advantages with laparoscopy, whereas 67 % expected shorter hospitalization. Seventy percent of responders anticipated comparable functional and oncological results between laparoscopic procedures and open surgery. Slow learning curves (81 %) and insufficient training facilities (32 %) were reported to impair laparoscopic surgery. On average, laparoscopic and non-laparoscopic surgical teams consisted of 2.5 and 3.5 members, respectively. LESS procedures were performed at 15 % of institutions. Twenty-two percent of respondents considered NOTES techniques valuable for future urology. Few indications (laparoscopic prostatectomies or nephrectomies) were performed frequently in specialized centers, and the rapidly increasing procedure numbers observed between 2002 and 2007 had dropped to a mild accretion. The results demonstrate broad acceptance of laparoscopy in German urologic surgery, depict the need for structured training facilities, and indicate limited impact of novel techniques (LESS and NOTES). The survey demonstrates the 10-year development of urologic laparoscopy and the broad acceptance of laparoscopic techniques.World Journal of Urology 02/2014; · 3.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To assess health-related quality of life in the first year after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy compared with that after open radical prostatectomy. The subjects were 105 consecutive patients with localized prostate cancer treated with laparoscopic radical prostatectomy between January 2011 and June 2012. Health-related quality of life was evaluated using the International Prostate Symptom Score, Medical Outcome Study 8-Items Short Form Health Survey (SF-8) and Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite at baseline and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery. Comparisons were made with data for 107 consecutive patients treated with open radical prostatectomy between October 2005 and July 2007. The International Prostate Symptom Score change was similar in each group. The laparoscopic radical prostatectomy group had a better baseline Medical Outcome Study 8-Items Short Form Health Survey mental component summary score and a better Medical Outcome Study 8-Items Short Form Health Survey physical component summary score at 1 month after surgery. In Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite, obstructive/irritative symptoms did not differ between the groups, but urinary incontinence was worse until 12 months after surgery and particularly severe after 1 month in the laparoscopic radical prostatectomy group. The rate of severe urinary incontinence was much higher in the laparoscopic radical prostatectomy group in the early period. Urinary bother was worse in the laparoscopic radical prostatectomy group at 1 and 3 months, but did not differ between the groups thereafter. Urinary function and bother were good after nerve sparing procedures and did not differ between the groups. Bowel and sexual function and bother were similar in the two groups. Urinary function in the first year after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy is worse than that after open radical prostatectomy.Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology 05/2014; · 1.75 Impact Factor