The development, distribution and density of the plasma membrane calcium ATPase 2 calcium pump in rat cochlear hair cells.
ABSTRACT Calcium is tightly regulated in cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs). It enters mainly via mechanotransducer (MT) channels and is extruded by the plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA)2 isoform of the PMCA, mutations in which cause hearing loss. To assess how pump expression matches the demands of Ca(2+) homeostasis, the distribution of PMCA2 at different cochlear locations during development was quantified using immunofluorescence and post-embedding immunogold labeling. The PMCA2 isoform was confined to stereociliary bundles, first appearing at the base of the cochlea around post-natal day (P)0 followed by the middle and then the apex by P3, and was unchanged after P8. The developmental appearance matched the maturation of the MT channels in rat OHCs. High-resolution immunogold labeling in adult rats showed that PMCA2 was distributed along the membranes of all three rows of OHC stereocilia at similar densities and at about a quarter of the density in inner hair cell stereocilia. The difference between OHCs and inner hair cells was similar to the ratio of their MT channel resting open probabilities. Gold particle counts revealed no difference in PMCA2 density between low- and high-frequency OHC bundles despite larger MT currents in high-frequency OHCs. The PMCA2 density in OHC stereocilia was determined in low- and high-frequency regions from calibration of immunogold particle counts as 2200/μm(2) from which an extrusion rate of ∼200 ions/s per pump was inferred. The limited ability of PMCA2 to extrude the Ca(2+) load through MT channels may constitute a major cause of OHC vulnerability and high-frequency hearing loss.
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ABSTRACT: The avian auditory papilla contains two classes of sensory receptor, tall hair cells (THCs) and short hair cells (SHCs), the latter analogous to mammalian outer hair cells with large efferent but sparse afferent innervation. Little is known about the tuning, transduction or electrical properties of SHCs. To address this problem, we made patch clamp recordings from hair cells in an isolated chicken basilar papilla preparation at 33°C. We found SHCs are electrically tuned by a Ca(2+)-activated K(+) current, their resonant frequency varying along the papilla in tandem with that of the THCs, which also exhibit electrical tuning. The tonotopic map for THCs was similar to maps previously described from auditory nerve fiber measurements. SHCs also possess an A-type K(+) current, but electrical tuning was observed only at resting potentials positive to 45 mV where the A-current is inactivated. We predict the resting potential in vivo is ~ 40 mV, depolarized by a standing inward current through mechanotransducer (MT) channels having a resting open probability ~0.26. The resting open probability stems from a low endolymphatic Ca(2+) concentration (0.24 mM) and high intracellular mobile Ca(2+) buffer, estimated from perforated patch recordings as equivalent to 0.5 mM BAPTA. The high buffer concentration was confirmed by quantifying parvalbumin-3 and calbindinD-28K using calibrated post-embedding immunogold labeling, demonstrating over 1 mM calcium-binding sites. Both proteins displayed an apex-to-base gradient matching that in the MT current amplitude, which increased exponentially along the papilla. Stereociliary bundles also labeled heavily with antibodies against the Ca(2+) pump isoform PMCA2a.Journal of Neurophysiology 01/2013; 109(8). DOI:10.1152/jn.01028.2012
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ABSTRACT: Tight regulation of calcium (Ca(2+)) concentrations in the stereocilia bundles of auditory hair cells of the inner ear is critical to normal auditory transduction. The plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPase 2 (PMCA2), encoded by the Atp2b2 gene, is the primary mechanism for clearance of Ca(2+) from auditory stereocilia, keeping intracellular levels low, and also contributes to maintaining adequate levels of extracellular Ca(2+) in the endolymph. This study characterizes a novel null Atp2b2 allele, dfw(i5), by examining cochlear anatomy, vestibular function and auditory physiology in mutant mice. Loss of auditory function in PMCA2 mutants can be attributed to dysregulation of intracellular Ca(2+) inside the stereocilia bundles. However, extracellular Ca(2+) ions surrounding the stereocilia are also required for rigidity of cadherin 23, a component of the stereocilia tip-link encoded by the Cdh23 gene. This study further resolves the interaction between Atp2b2 and Cdh23 in a gene dosage and frequency-dependent manner, and finds that low frequencies are significantly affected by the interaction. In +/dfw(i5) mice, one mutant copy of Cdh23 is sufficient to cause broad frequency hearing impairment. Additionally, we report another modifying interaction with Atp2b2 on auditory sensitivity, possibly caused by an unidentified hearing loss gene in mice.Hearing research 06/2013; 304. DOI:10.1016/j.heares.2013.06.003
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ABSTRACT: The plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPase 2 (PMCA2) is necessary for auditory transduction and serves as the primary Ca(2+) extrusion mechanism in auditory stereocilia bundles. To date, studies examining PMCA2 in auditory function using mutant mice have focused on the phenotype of late adolescent and adult mice. Here, we focus on the changes of PMCA2 in the maturation of auditory sensitivity by comparing auditory responses to RNA and protein expression levels in haploinsufficient PMCA2 and wild-type mice from P16 into adulthood. Auditory sensitivity in wild-type mice improves between P16 and 3 weeks of age, when it becomes stable through adolescence. In haploinsufficient mice, there are frequency-dependent loss of sensitivity and subsequent recovery of thresholds between P16 and adulthood. RNA analysis demonstrates that α-Atp2b2 transcript levels increase in both wild-type and heterozygous cochleae between P16 and 5 weeks. The increases reported for the α-Atp2b2 transcript type during this stage in development support the requisite usage of this transcript for mature auditory transduction. PMCA2 expression also increases in wild-type cochleae between P16 and 5 weeks suggesting that this critical auditory protein may be involved in normal maturation of auditory sensitivity after the onset of hearing. We also characterize expression levels of two long noncoding RNA genes, Gm15082 (lnc82) and Gm15083 (lnc83), which are transcribed on the opposite strand in the 5' region of Atp2b2 and propose that the lnc83 transcript may be involved in regulating α-Atp2b2 expression.Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology 05/2014; 15(4). DOI:10.1007/s10162-014-0454-z