Association between segments of zonula occludens proteins: live-cell FRET and mass spectrometric analysis.
ABSTRACT The tight junction protein ZO-1 (zonula occludens protein 1) has recruiting/scaffolding functions in the junctional complex of epithelial and endothelial cells. Homodimerization was proposed to be crucial for ZO-1 function. Here, we investigated the ability of ZO-1 domains to mediate self-interaction in living cells. We expressed ZO-1 truncation mutants as fusions with derivatives of green fluorescent protein in tight junction-free HEK-293 cells and determined self-association by means of fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements using live-cell imaging. We show that both an SH3-hinge-GuK fusion protein and the PDZ2 domain self-associate in our test system. The recombinant PDZ2 domain also binds to ZO-1 and ZO-2 in tight junction-forming HT29/B6 cell lysates, as demonstrated by coprecipitation. Both interaction types are of relevance for the function of ZO-1 in the regulation of the junctional complex in polar cells.
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ABSTRACT: ZO-1, ZO-2, and ZO-3, which contain three PDZ domains (PDZ1 to -3), are concentrated at tight junctions (TJs) in epithelial cells. TJ strands are mainly composed of two distinct types of four-transmembrane proteins, occludin, and claudins, between which occludin was reported to directly bind to ZO-1/ZO-2/ZO-3. However, in occludin-deficient intestinal epithelial cells, ZO-1/ZO-2/ZO-3 were still recruited to TJs. We then examined the possible interactions between ZO-1/ZO-2/ZO-3 and claudins. ZO-1, ZO-2, and ZO-3 bound to the COOH-terminal YV sequence of claudin-1 to -8 through their PDZ1 domains in vitro. Then, claudin-1 or -2 was transfected into L fibroblasts, which express ZO-1 but not ZO-2 or ZO-3. Claudin-1 and -2 were concentrated at cell-cell borders in an elaborate network pattern, to which endogenous ZO-1 was recruited. When ZO-2 or ZO-3 were further transfected, both were recruited to the claudin-based networks together with endogenous ZO-1. Detailed analyses showed that ZO-2 and ZO-3 are recruited to the claudin-based networks through PDZ2 (ZO-2 or ZO-3)/PDZ2 (endogenous ZO-1) and PDZ1 (ZO-2 or ZO-3)/COOH-terminal YV (claudins) interactions. In good agreement, PDZ1 and PDZ2 domains of ZO-1/ZO-2/ZO-3 were also recruited to claudin-based TJs, when introduced into cultured epithelial cells. The possible molecular architecture of TJ plaque structures is discussed.The Journal of Cell Biology 01/2000; 147(6):1351-63. · 10.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The dynamic rearrangement of cell-cell junctions such as tight junctions and adherens junctions is a critical step in various cellular processes, including establishment of epithelial cell polarity and developmental patterning. Tight junctions are mediated by molecules such as occludin and its associated ZO-1 and ZO-2, and adherens junctions are mediated by adhesion molecules such as cadherin and its associated catenins. The transformation of epithelial cells by activated Ras results in the perturbation of cell-cell contacts. We previously identified the ALL-1 fusion partner from chromosome 6 (AF-6) as a Ras target. AF-6 has the PDZ domain, which is thought to localize AF-6 at the specialized sites of plasma membranes such as cell-cell contact sites. We investigated roles of Ras and AF-6 in the regulation of cell-cell contacts and found that AF-6 accumulated at the cell-cell contact sites of polarized MDCKII epithelial cells and had a distribution similar to that of ZO-1 but somewhat different from those of catenins. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed a close association between AF-6 and ZO-1 at the tight junctions of MDCKII cells. Native and recombinant AF-6 interacted with ZO-1 in vitro. ZO-1 interacted with the Ras-binding domain of AF-6, and this interaction was inhibited by activated Ras. AF-6 accumulated with ZO-1 at the cell-cell contact sites in cells lacking tight junctions such as Rat1 fibroblasts and PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells. The overexpression of activated Ras in Rat1 cells resulted in the perturbation of cell-cell contacts, followed by a decrease of the accumulation of AF-6 and ZO-1 at the cell surface. These results indicate that AF-6 serves as one of the peripheral components of tight junctions in epithelial cells and cell-cell adhesions in nonepithelial cells, and that AF-6 may participate in the regulation of cell-cell contacts, including tight junctions, via direct interaction with ZO-1 downstream of Ras.The Journal of Cell Biology 12/1997; 139(3):785-95. · 10.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Occludin is an integral membrane protein localizing at tight junctions (TJ) with four transmembrane domains and a long COOH-terminal cytoplasmic domain (domain E) consisting of 255 amino acids. Immunofluorescence and laser scan microscopy revealed that chick full-length occludin introduced into human and bovine epithelial cells was correctly delivered to and incorporated into preexisting TJ. Further transfection studies with various deletion mutants showed that the domain E, especially its COOH-terminal approximately 150 amino acids (domain E358/504), was necessary for the localization of occludin at TJ. Secondly, domain E was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with glutathione-S-transferase, and this fusion protein was shown to be specifically bound to a complex of ZO-1 (220 kD) and ZO-2 (160 kD) among various membrane peripheral proteins. In vitro binding analyses using glutathione-S-transferase fusion proteins of various deletion mutants of domain E narrowed down the sequence necessary for the ZO-1/ZO-2 association into the domain E358/504. Furthermore, this region directly associated with the recombinant ZO-1 produced in E. coli. We concluded that occludin itself can localize at TJ and directly associate with ZO-1. The coincidence of the sequence necessary for the ZO-1 association with that for the TJ localization suggests that the association with underlying cytoskeletons through ZO-1 is required for occludin to be localized at TJ.The Journal of Cell Biology 01/1995; 127(6 Pt 1):1617-26. · 10.82 Impact Factor