Complete genome sequence of Allochromatium vinosum DSM 180T

Standards in Genomic Sciences (Impact Factor: 3.17). 12/2011; 5(3):311-30. DOI: 10.4056/sigs.2335270
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Allochromatium vinosum formerly Chromatium vinosum is a mesophilic purple sulfur bacterium belonging to the family Chromatiaceae in the bacterial class Gammaproteobacteria. The genus Allochromatium contains currently five species. All members were isolated from freshwater, brackish water or marine habitats and are predominately obligate phototrophs. Here we describe the features of the organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the first completed genome sequence of a member of the Chromatiaceae within the purple sulfur bacteria thriving in globally occurring habitats. The 3,669,074 bp genome with its 3,302 protein-coding and 64 RNA genes was sequenced within the Joint Genome Institute Community Sequencing Program.

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    ABSTRACT: This study systematically investigated the different types of LH2 produced by Allochromatium (Alc.) vinosum, a photosynthetic purple sulphur bacterium, in response to variations in growth conditions. Three different spectral forms of LH2 were isolated and purified, the B800-820, B800-840 and B800-850 LH2 types, all of which exhibit an unusual split 800 peak in their low temperature absorption spectra. However, it is likely that more forms are also present. Relatively more B800-820 and B800-840 are produced under low light conditions, while relatively more B800-850 is produced under high light conditions. Polypeptide compositions of the three different LH2 types were determined by a combination of HPLC and TOF/MS. The B800-820, B800-840 and B800-850 LH2 types all have a heterogeneous polypeptide composition , containing multiple types of both α and β polypeptides, and differ in their precise polypeptide composition. They all have a mixed carotenoid composition, containing carotenoids of the spirilloxanthin series. In all cases the most abundant carotenoid is rhodopin; however there is a shift towards carotenoids with a higher conjugation number in LH2 complexes produced under low light conditions. CD spectroscopy, together with the polypeptide analysis, demonstrates that these Alc. vinosum LH2 complexes are more closely related to the LH2 complex from Phs. molischianum than they are to the LH2 complexes from Rps. acidophila.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Bioenergetics 08/2014; 1837(11). DOI:10.1016/j.bbabio.2014.07.022 · 4.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thioarsenates are the dominant arsenic species in arsenic-rich, alkaline and sulfidic waters, but bacterial interactions with these compounds have only recently been examined. Previous studies have shown that microorganisms play a role in the transformation of monothioarsenate to arsenate, including use of monothioarsenate as a chemolithotrophic electron donor coupled with oxygen as an electron acceptor. We obtained enrichment cultures from two saline, alkaline lakes (Mono Lake, CA and Big Soda Lake, NV) that are able to use monothioarsenate as the sole electron donor for anoxygenic photosynthesis. These anoxic cultures were able to convert a 1 mM mixture of thioarsenates completely to arsenate in approximately 13 days and 4 mM monothioarsenate to arsenate in approximately 17 days. This conversion was light dependent, thus monothioarsenate can be used as the sole electron donor for anoxygenic photosynthesis. Both of the Mono Lake and Big Soda Lake enrichment cultures were dominated by an organism closely related to Ectothiorhodospira species. We tested additional strains of purple sulfur bacteria and found widespread ability to use monothioarsenate as an electron donor. The ability of bacteria to transform thioarsenates directly via anoxygenic photosynthesis adds a new perspective to the well-studied arsenic and sulfur cycles.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    FEMS Microbiology Ecology 10/2014; 90(3). DOI:10.1111/1574-6941.12440 · 3.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Environmental fluctuations require rapid adjustment of the physiology of bacteria. Anoxygenic phototrophic purple sulfur bacteria, like Allochromatium vinosum, thrive in environments that are characterized by steep gradients of important nutrients for these organisms, i.e., reduced sulfur compounds, light, oxygen and carbon sources. Changing conditions necessitate changes on every level of the underlying cellular and molecular network. Thus far, two global analyses of A. vinosum responses to changes of nutritional conditions have been performed and these focused on gene expression and protein levels. Here, we provide a study on metabolite composition and relate it with transcriptional and proteomic profiling data to provide a more comprehensive insight on the systems level adjustment to available nutrients. We identified 131 individual metabolites and compared availability and concentration under four different growth conditions (sulfide, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, and malate) and on sulfide for a ΔdsrJ mutant strain. During growth on malate, cysteine was identified to be the least abundant amino acid. Concentrations of the metabolite classes “amino acids” and “organic acids” (i.e., pyruvate and its derivatives) were higher on malate than on reduced sulfur compounds by at least 20 and 50 %, respectively. Similar observations were made for metabolites assigned to anabolism of glucose. Growth on sulfur compounds led to enhanced concentrations of sulfur containing metabolites, while other cell constituents remained unaffected or decreased. Incapability of sulfur globule oxidation of the mutant strain was reflected by a low energy level of the cell and consequently reduced levels of amino acids (40 %) and sugars (65 %). Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11306-014-0649-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Metabolomics 03/2014; 10(6). DOI:10.1007/s11306-014-0649-7 · 3.97 Impact Factor

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