Biogenic Amines in Raw and Processed Seafood

Department of Food Science, University of Teramo, Mosciano Sant'Angelo Teramo, Italy.
Frontiers in Microbiology (Impact Factor: 3.99). 06/2012; 3(3):188. DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2012.00188
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The presence of biogenic amines (BAs) in raw and processed seafood, associated with either time/temperature conditions or food technologies is discussed in the present paper from a safety and prevention point of view. In particular, storage temperature, handling practices, presence of microbial populations with decarboxylase activity and availability of free amino acids are considered the most important factors affecting the production of BAs in raw seafood. On the other hand, some food technological treatments such as salting, ripening, fermentation, or marination can increase the levels of BAs in processed seafood. The consumption of high amount of BAs, above all histamine, can result in food borne poisoning which is a worldwide problem. The European Regulation established as maximum limits for histamine, in fishery products from fish species associated with high histidine amounts, values ranging from 100 to 200 mg/kg, while for products which have undergone enzyme maturation treatment in brine, the aforementioned limits rise to 200 and 400 mg/kg. Preventive measures and emerging methods aiming at controlling the production of BAs are also reported for potential application in seafood industries.

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Available from: Rosanna Tofalo, Sep 29, 2015
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    • "There are also methods based on ion-exchange chromatography with conductivity [36] or amperometric detection [37] [38]. The BAs had been determined in fermented food as aged cheese [39], wine [20], beer [22] [40], fish [41], meat [42], fermented soya beans and bean curd [43], chocolate [38] and other food samples [2] [3] [6] [9] [11]. "
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    • "A number of the histamine-forming bacteria are facultative anaerobes that can grow in reduced oxygen environments (FDA 2011). Evisceration and removal of the gills may reduce, but not eliminate, the number of histamine-forming bacteria (Visciano et al. 2012). Variations in the histamine content of air and vacuum packed pabda samples are depicted in the Fig. 2b. "
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