The Effect of Prenatal Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy on the Transmission of Congenital and Perinatal/Early Postnatal Cytomegalovirus Among HIV-Infected and HIV-Exposed Infants

Department of Pediatrics, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
Clinical Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 8.89). 06/2012; 55(6):877-84. DOI: 10.1093/cid/cis535
Source: PubMed


Before highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) rates were higher among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed infants than unexposed infants. This study examines congenital and perinatal/early postnatal (P/EP) CMV among HIV-exposed infants pre- and post- HAART.
Infants born to HIV-infected women were evaluated for congenital CMV (CMV-positive culture in first 3 weeks of life) and P/EP CMV (positive culture in first 6 months of life). Prenatal maternal HAART was defined as triple antiretroviral therapy (ART) with at least 1 nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor or protease inhibitor.
Among 414 infants evaluated, 1678 CMV assessment days were completed (mean = 3 assessment days per infant). Congenital CMV rates did not differ by time period, HAART use, or infant HIV infection status. P/EP CMV rates were greater for the 1988-1996 birth cohort (17.9%) compared with the 1997-2002 birth cohort (8.9%) (P < .01), HIV-infected versus uninfected infants (P < .01), and infants with no maternal ART versus those with ART (P < .01). Controlling for potential confounders, P/EP CMV was associated with no maternal ART (odds ratio = 4.7; P < .01), and among those with no maternal ART, P/EP CMV was associated with maternal CD4 count ≤200 cells/μL (P < .01). For HIV-uninfected infants with P/EP CMV, symptoms including splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, and hepatomegaly were associated with no maternal HAART versus those with HAART (41% vs 6%; P < .05).
Although congenital CMV rates did not change, the post-HAART era showed reduced P/EP CMV and occurrence of related clinical symptoms. These findings underscore the importance of prenatal HAART for all HIV-infected pregnant women.

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    • "Mounting evidence suggests that growth and development of HIV-exposed, uninfected infants are also adversely affected by perinatal CMV acquisition [15]. Moreover, high rates of symptomatic perinatal CMV infection have been described in HIV-exposed infants, an effect that may be modulated by maternal HAART [16]. Perinatal CMV infection may contribute to the recognized growth impairment of HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. "
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