Before highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) rates were higher among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed infants than unexposed infants. This study examines congenital and perinatal/early postnatal (P/EP) CMV among HIV-exposed infants pre- and post- HAART.
Infants born to HIV-infected women were evaluated for congenital CMV (CMV-positive culture in first 3 weeks of life) and P/EP CMV (positive culture in first 6 months of life). Prenatal maternal HAART was defined as triple antiretroviral therapy (ART) with at least 1 nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor or protease inhibitor.
Among 414 infants evaluated, 1678 CMV assessment days were completed (mean = 3 assessment days per infant). Congenital CMV rates did not differ by time period, HAART use, or infant HIV infection status. P/EP CMV rates were greater for the 1988-1996 birth cohort (17.9%) compared with the 1997-2002 birth cohort (8.9%) (P < .01), HIV-infected versus uninfected infants (P < .01), and infants with no maternal ART versus those with ART (P < .01). Controlling for potential confounders, P/EP CMV was associated with no maternal ART (odds ratio = 4.7; P < .01), and among those with no maternal ART, P/EP CMV was associated with maternal CD4 count ≤200 cells/μL (P < .01). For HIV-uninfected infants with P/EP CMV, symptoms including splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, and hepatomegaly were associated with no maternal HAART versus those with HAART (41% vs 6%; P < .05).
Although congenital CMV rates did not change, the post-HAART era showed reduced P/EP CMV and occurrence of related clinical symptoms. These findings underscore the importance of prenatal HAART for all HIV-infected pregnant women.
"Mounting evidence suggests that growth and development of HIV-exposed, uninfected infants are also adversely affected by perinatal CMV acquisition . Moreover, high rates of symptomatic perinatal CMV infection have been described in HIV-exposed infants, an effect that may be modulated by maternal HAART . Perinatal CMV infection may contribute to the recognized growth impairment of HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV-1 and CMV are important pathogens transmitted via breastfeeding. Furthermore, perinatal CMV transmission may impact growth and disease progression in HIV-exposed infants. Although maternal antiretroviral therapy reduces milk HIV-1 RNA load and postnatal transmission, its impact on milk CMV load is unclear. We examined the relationship between milk CMV and HIV-1 load (4-6 weeks postpartum) and the impact of antiretroviral treatment in 69 HIV-infected, lactating Malawian women and assessed the relationship between milk CMV load and postnatal growth in HIV-exposed, breastfed infants through six months of age. Despite an association between milk HIV-1 RNA and CMV DNA load (0.39 log10 rise CMV load per log10 rise HIV-1 RNA load, 95% CI 0.13-0.66), milk CMV load was similar in antiretroviral-treated and untreated women. Higher milk CMV load was associated with lower length-for-age (-0.53, 95% CI: -0.96, -0.10) and weight-for-age (-0.40, 95% CI: -0.67, -0.13) Z-score at six months in exposed, uninfected infants. As the impact of maternal antiretroviral therapy on the magnitude of postnatal CMV exposure may be limited, our findings of an inverse relationship between infant growth and milk CMV load highlight the importance of defining the role of perinatal CMV exposure on growth faltering of HIV-exposed infants.
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology 03/2014; 2014:989721. DOI:10.1155/2014/989721
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
To compare the effect of administration of probiotics on feeding tolerance and growth outcomes of HIV-exposed (but uninfected) versus HIV non-exposed preterm infants. The null-hypothesis of this study states that there will be no difference in the feeding tolerance and growth outcomes for both probiotic exposed and unexposed premature very-low birth weight infants.
Patients and Methods
A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial was conducted for the period July 2011 to August 2012. HIV-exposed and HIV-unexposed premature (<34 weeks gestation) infants with a birth weight of ≥500g and ≤1250g were randomized to receive either a probiotic mixture or placebo. The multispecies probiotic mixture consisted of 1x109 CFU, L. rhamnosus GG and B. infantis per day and was administered for 28 days. Anthropometrical parameters, daily intakes and feeding tolerance were monitored.
74 HIV-exposed and 110 HIV-unexposed infants were enrolled and randomized (mean birth-weight: 987g ±160g, range: 560g-1244g); mean gestational age 28.7 weeks). A total of 4 227 probiotic doses were administered (mean 22.9 /infant). There was no difference in the average daily weight gain for treatment groups or HIV exposure. The HIV-exposed group achieved significantly higher z-scores for length and head circumference at day 28 than the unexposed group (p<0.01 and p=0.03, respectively). There were no differences in the incidence of any signs of feeding intolerance and abdominal distension between the groups.
Probiotic supplementation did not affect growth outcomes or the incidence of any signs of feeding intolerance in HIV-exposure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SUMMARY Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a leading cause of congenital infections worldwide. In the developed world, following the virtual elimination of circulating rubella, it is the commonest nongenetic cause of childhood hearing loss and an important cause of neurodevelopmental delay. The seroprevalence of CMV in adults and the incidence of congenital CMV infection are highest in developing countries (1 to 5% of births) and are most likely driven by nonprimary maternal infections. However, reliable estimates of prevalence and outcome from developing countries are not available. This is largely due to the dogma that maternal preexisting seroimmunity virtually eliminates the risk for sequelae. However, recent data demonstrating similar rates of sequelae, especially hearing loss, following primary and nonprimary maternal infection have underscored the importance of congenital CMV infection in resource-poor settings. Although a significant proportion of congenital CMV infections are attributable to maternal primary infection in well-resourced settings, the absence of specific interventions for seronegative mothers and uncertainty about fetal prognosis have discouraged routine maternal antibody screening. Despite these challenges, encouraging results from prototype vaccines have been reported, and the first randomized phase III trials of prenatal interventions and prolonged postnatal antiviral therapy are under way. Successful implementation of strategies to prevent or reduce the burden of congenital CMV infection will require heightened global awareness among clinicians and the general population. In this review, we highlight the global epidemiology of congenital CMV and the implications of growing knowledge in areas of prevention, diagnosis, prognosis, and management for both low (50 to 70%)- and high (>70%)-seroprevalence settings.
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