Molecular imaging of p53 signal pathway in lung cancer cell cycle arrest induced by cisplatin
ABSTRACT Cisplatin is a commonly employed chemotherapy drug for lung malignancy. However its efficacy is limited by acquired drug resistance and lacking of an in vivo real-time monitoring approach. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of cisplatin on lung adenocarcinoma cell line p53-RE-Fluc/A549 in vivo via non-invasive reporter gene by molecular imaging. For this study, we employed p53-RE-Fluc/A549 cells that overexpressed a vector with three tandem repeats of p53 response element followed by the luciferase reporter gene. P53 activity was evaluated by optical imaging and verified by Western blot after cells were exposed to 10 µM cisplatin for 72 h. The cell cycle was mainly blocked at the S- and G2/M-phases after cisplatin treatment, whereas no significant change was observed in cell apoptotic index. Increased expression of p21 and Bcl-2 as well as decreased expression of Bax were observed after cisplatin treatment by Western blotting. Longitudinal in vivo bioluminescent imaging (BLI) revealed that the p53 activity was increased from 24 to 48 h after transient cisplatin treatment in p53-RE-Fluc/A549-bearing nude mice. RNA sequencing further revealed that cell cycle and p53 signaling pathway genes, such as E2F1, CCNA2, CDK1, and CCNE2 were significantly downregulated after long-term cisplatin treatment. Thus, our study showed that cisplatin exerts its cytotoxic effect through blockage of the cell cycle and may be partly regulated by the p53 signaling pathway. Furthermore, molecular imaging is a useful tool to investigate the mechanism and evaluate the effect of chemotherapy drugs both in vivo and in vitro. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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ABSTRACT: Chemoresistance to platinum therapy is a major obstacle that needs to be overcome in the treatment of ovarian cancer patients. The high rates and patterns of therapeutic failure seen in patients are consistent with a steady accumulation of drug-resistant cancer stem cells (CSCs). This study demonstrates that the Notch signaling pathway and Notch3 in particular are critical for the regulation of CSCs and tumor resistance to platinum. We show that Notch3 overexpression in tumor cells results in expansion of CSCs and increased platinum chemoresistance. In contrast, γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI), a Notch pathway inhibitor, depletes CSCs and increases tumor sensitivity to platinum. Similarly, a Notch3 siRNA knockdown increases the response to platinum therapy, further demonstrating that modulation of tumor chemosensitivity by GSI is Notch specific. Most importantly, the cisplatin/GSI combination is the only treatment that effectively eliminates both CSCs and the bulk of tumor cells, indicating that a dual combination targeting both populations is needed for tumor eradication. In addition, we found that the cisplatin/GSI combination therapy has a synergistic cytotoxic effect in Notch-dependent tumor cells by enhancing the DNA-damage response, G(2)/M cell-cycle arrest, and apoptosis. Based on these results, we conclude that targeting the Notch pathway could significantly increase tumor sensitivity to platinum therapy. Our study suggests important clinical applications for targeting Notch as part of novel treatment strategies upon diagnosis of ovarian cancer and at recurrence. Both platinum-resistant and platinum-sensitive relapses may benefit from such an approach as clinical data suggest that all relapses after platinum therapy are increasingly platinum resistant.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/2012; 109(43):E2939-48. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1206400109 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Several studies have examined the prognostic value of the TP53 Arg72Pro polymorphism (rs1042522) and/or MDM2 SNP309 (rs2279744) in multiple tumors. Our aim was to determine whether these two genetic variants were correlated with clinical outcome of gastric cancer. METHODS: We genotyped the two SNPs, TP53 codon 72 polymorphism and MDM2 SNP309, in 940 gastric cancer patients with complete follow-up information and analyzed the correlation between the SNPs and gastric cancer survival. RESULTS: The two SNPs were not significantly associated with gastric cancer survival. However, the TP53 codon 72 polymorphism had a prominent correlation with clinical outcome of patients receiving 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu)-based postoperative chemotherapy [Arg/Arg + Arg/Pro vs. Pro/Pro, adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.63, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.08-2.44]. Moreover, the unfavorable effect of Arg allele on survival outcome was more predominant for subgroups of older (age >60 years), male, intestinal histology type, advanced stage (T3/T4), and none metastasis of lymph node (N0) or distant (M0) (adjusted HR = 2.34, 95 % CI = 1.24-4.44 for age >60 years; 1.72, 1.10-2.69 for male; 2.30, 1.10-4.80 for intestinal; 1.62, 1.01-2.59 for T3/T4; 3.42, 1.26-9.24 for N0; and 1.62, 1.06-2.47 for M0). Among multiple chemotherapy regimens, the association was only significant in the subgroup of 5-Fu/calcium folinate plus oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) chemotherapy regimen (adjusted HR = 4.47, 95 % CI = 1.21-16.55). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings showed that TP53 codon 72 polymorphism was associated with survival of gastric cancer patients treated with 5-Fu-based postoperative chemotherapy. The codon 72 polymorphism may be a potential prognostic factor.Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 02/2013; 71(4). DOI:10.1007/s00280-013-2103-3 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21 (CCL21) and SPARC-like protein 1 (SPARCL1/MAST9/hevin/SC-1) are associated with various biological behavior in the development of cancers. Although the expression of CCL21 and SPARCL1 is downregulated in many solid tumors, their roles in ovarian cancer and their associations with drug resistance have rarely been studied. We performed a comprehensive bioinformatic analysis consisting of motif analysis, literature co-occurrence, gene/protein-gene/protein interaction network, protein-small molecule interaction network, and microRNAs enrichments which revealed that CCL21 and SPARCL1 directly or indirectly interact with a number of genes, proteins, small molecules and pathways associated with drug resistance in ovarian and other cancers. These results suggested that CCL21 and SPARCL1 may contribute to drug resistance in ovarian cancer. This study provided important information for further investigation of drug resistance-related functions of CCL21 and SPARCL1 in ovarian cancer.International Journal of Oncology 04/2013; 42(4):1305-16. DOI:10.3892/ijo.2013.1819 · 3.03 Impact Factor