Fargesin improves lipid and glucose metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and high-fat diet-induced obese mice.
ABSTRACT This study examined the effects of fargesin, a neolignan isolated from Magnolia plants, on obesity and insulin resistance and the possible mechanisms involved in these effects in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Fargesin promoted the glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In HFD-induced obese mice, fargesin decreased the body weight gain, white adipose tissue (WAT), and plasma triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acid and glucose levels, and improved the glucose tolerance. Fargesin increased glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) protein expression and phosphorylation of Akt, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) in both 3T3-L1 adipocytes and WAT of HFD-induced obese mice. Fargesin also decreased the mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1), uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2) and leptin in WAT. Taken together, the present findings suggest that fargesin improves dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia by activating Akt and AMPK in WAT.
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ABSTRACT: Fibrates and glitazones are two classes of drugs currently used in the treatment of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance (IR), respectively. Whereas glitazones are insulin sensitizers acting via activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma subtype, fibrates exert their lipid-lowering activity via PPARalpha. To determine whether PPARalpha activators also improve insulin sensitivity, we measured the capacity of three PPARalpha-selective agonists, fenofibrate, ciprofibrate, and the new compound GW9578, in two rodent models of high fat diet-induced (C57BL/6 mice) or genetic (obese Zucker rats) IR. At doses yielding serum concentrations shown to activate selectively PPARalpha, these compounds markedly lowered hyperinsulinemia and, when present, hyperglycemia in both animal models. This effect relied on the improvement of insulin action on glucose utilization, as indicated by a lower insulin peak in response to intraperitoneal glucose in ciprofibrate-treated IR obese Zucker rats. In addition, fenofibrate treatment prevented high fat diet-induced increase of body weight and adipose tissue mass without influencing caloric intake. The specificity for PPARalpha activation in vivo was demonstrated by marked alterations in the expression of PPARalpha target genes, whereas PPARgamma target gene mRNA levels did not change in treated animals. These results indicate that compounds with a selective PPARalpha activation profile reduce insulin resistance without having adverse effects on body weight and adipose tissue mass in animal models of IR.Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2000; 275(22):16638-42. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Serine and threonine phosphorylation of IRS-1 (insulin receptor substrate-1) has been reported to decrease its ability to be tyrosine-phosphorylated by the insulin receptor. Insulin itself may negatively regulate tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 through a PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)-dependent feedback pathway. In the present study, we examined the regulation and role of IRS-1 serine phosphorylation in the modulation of IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation in physiologically relevant cells, namely freshly isolated primary adipocytes. We show that insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Ser312 and Ser616 in IRS-1 was relatively slow, with maximal phosphorylation achieved after 20 and 5 min respectively. The effect of insulin on phosphorylation of both these sites required the activation of PI3K and the MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases) ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2), but not the activation of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin)/p70S6 kinase, JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) or p38MAPK. Although inhibition of PI3K and ERK1/2 both substantially decreased insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Ser312 and Ser616, only wortmannin enhanced insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1. Furthermore, inhibition of mTOR/p70S6 kinase, JNK or p38MAPK had no effect on insulin-stimulated IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation. The differential effect of inhibition of ERK1/2 on insulin-stimulated IRS-1 phosphorylation of Ser312/Ser616 and tyrosine indicates that these events are independent of each other and that phosphorylation of Ser312/Ser616 is not responsible for the negative regulation of IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation mediated by PI3K in primary adipocytes.Biochemical Journal 07/2005; 388(Pt 2):713-20. · 4.65 Impact Factor