Motor cortex stimulation in refractory pelvic and perineal pain: Report of two successful cases.
ABSTRACT AIMS: In some patients, with refractory chronic pelvic and perineal pain, pain and quality of life are barely alleviated despite optimal medical treatment, infiltrations and surgical release of the pudendal nerve. The management of these patients is complex, especially after failure of neuromodulation techniques (spinal cord stimulation. S3 nerve root stimulation and direct stimulation of the pudendal nerve). We report the first two cases illustrating the value of motor cortex stimulation (MCS), in this new indication. METHODS: The history, decision-making process, intraoperative findings and results of this technique are presented. The perineal cortical area was identified by intraoperative motor evoked potentials in the external anal sphincter, confirming its location in the primary motor cortex between the inferior and superior limb positions. As predictive value of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the identification of responders to MCS for pain is now established, we performed pre-operative rTMS sessions for both patients. RESULTS: The first patient was a 74-years-old woman who reported an 11-year history of left lateral perineal pain. The second patient was a 45-year-old woman who reported a 4-year history of perineal pain following hysterectomy with ovariectomy. After respectively 40 months and 19 months of follow up, both patients reported an improvement of pain ranging from 40 to 50%. Time to onset of pain on sitting was markedly improved from a few minutes to 90 minutes, and largely contributing to improvement of activities of daily living and of quality of life. CONCLUSION: These two first cases suggest that motor cortex stimulation constitutes a new treatment for refractory pelvic and perineal pain, and should be considered after failure of conventional neuromodulation techniques, especially spinal cord stimulation. Neurourol. Urodynam. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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ABSTRACT: Pharmacological relief of neuropathic pain is often insufficient. Electrical neurostimulation is efficacious in chronic neuropathic pain and other neurological diseases. European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS) launched a Task Force to evaluate the evidence for these techniques and to produce relevant recommendations. We searched the literature from 1968 to 2006, looking for neurostimulation in neuropathic pain conditions, and classified the trials according to the EFNS scheme of evidence for therapeutic interventions. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is efficacious in failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) and complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type I (level B recommendation). High-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) may be better than placebo (level C) although worse than electro-acupuncture (level B). One kind of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has transient efficacy in central and peripheral neuropathic pains (level B). Motor cortex stimulation (MCS) is efficacious in central post-stroke and facial pain (level C). Deep brain stimulation (DBS) should only be performed in experienced centres. Evidence for implanted peripheral stimulations is inadequate. TENS and r-TMS are non-invasive and suitable as preliminary or add-on therapies. Further controlled trials are warranted for SCS in conditions other than failed back surgery syndrome and CRPS and for MCS and DBS in general. These chronically implanted techniques provide satisfactory pain relief in many patients, including those resistant to medication or other means.European Journal of Neurology 10/2007; 14(9):952-70. · 4.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Thirty-two patients with refractory central and neuropathic pain of peripheral origin were treated by chronic stimulation of the motor cortex between May 1993 and January 1997. The mean follow-up was 27.3 months. The first 24 patients were operated according to the technique described by Tsubokawa. The last 13 cases (eight new patients and five reinterventions) were operated by a technique including localisation by superficial CT reconstruction of the central region and neuronavigator guidance. The position of the central sulcus was confirmed by the use of intraoperative somatosensory evoked potentials. The somatotopic organisation of the motor cortex was established peroperatively by studying the motor responses at stimulation of the motor cortex through the dura. Ten of the 13 patients with central pain (77%) and ten of the 12 patients with neuropathic facial pain had experienced substantial pain relief (75%). One of the three patients with post-paraplegia pain was clearly improved. A satisfactory result was obtained in one patient with pain related to plexus avulsion and in one patient with pain related to intercostal herpes zooster. None of the patients developed epileptic seizures. The position of the stimulating poles effective on pain corresponded to the somatotopic representation of the motor cortex. The neuronavigator localisation and guidance technique proved to be most useful identifying the appropriate portion of the motor gyrus. It also allowed the establishment of reliable correlations between electrophysiological-clinical and anatomical data which may be used to improve the clinical results and possibly to extend the indications of this technique.Pain 10/1999; 82(3):245-51. · 5.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To investigate brain mechanisms whereby electrical stimulation of the motor cortex (MCS) may induce pain relief in patients with neuropathic pain, cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes were studied using H2O PET in 19 consecutive patients treated with MCS for refractory neuropathic pain. Patients were studied in three conditions, (a) before MCS (Baseline, stimulator stopped 4 weeks before), (b) during a 35-min period of MCS and (c) during a 75-min period after MCS had been discontinued (OFF). Compared to Baseline, turning on the stimulator was associated with CBF increase in the contralateral (anterior) midcingulate cortex (aMCC, BA24 and 32) and in the dorso-lateral prefrontal (BA10) cortices. The most important changes of CBF were observed in the 75 min after discontinuation of MCS (OFF). This post-stimulation period was associated with CBF increases in a large set of cortical and subcortical regions (from posterior MCC (pMCC) to pregenual (pg) ACC, orbitofrontal cortex, putamen, thalami, posterior cingulate and prefrontal areas) and in the brainstem (mesencephalon/periaqueductal grey (PAG) and pons). CBF changes in the post-stimulation period correlated with pain relief. Functional connectivity analysis showed significant correlation between pgACC and PAG, basal ganglia, and lower pons activities, supporting the activation of descending ACC-to-PAG connections. MCS may act in part through descending (top-down) inhibitory controls that involve prefrontal, orbitofrontal and ACC as well as basal ganglia, thalamus and brainstem. These hemodynamic changes are lengthened and might therefore underlie the long-lasting clinical effects that largely outlast the actual stimulation periods.NeuroImage 02/2007; 34(1):310-21. · 6.25 Impact Factor