The Burden of Untreated Hepatitis C Virus Infection: A US Patients' Perspective
ABSTRACT Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is widespread and associated with high economic costs and reduced quality of life, but the impact of untreated HCV infection on patient outcome is not well understood.
To estimate the impact of untreated HCV infection on work productivity, daily activity, healthcare use, economic costs, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL).
Respondents to the 2010 US National Health and Wellness Survey (n = 75,000) reporting physician diagnosis of HCV infection but not current or previous treatment (patients) were matched to respondents without HCV infection (controls) by use of propensity scores. Those reporting infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were excluded. Self-reported work impairment, activity impairment, healthcare resource use, and HRQoL were compared between patients and controls. Indirect and direct costs were estimated.
A total of 306 patients met inclusion criteria. Patients were more impaired at work than controls, with overall work impairment of 26 % versus 15 %, respectively (P < 0.001), mostly because of presenteeism in both groups. Annual productivity losses were estimated at $10,316 per employed patient compared with $5,469 per control (P < 0.001). Patients used more healthcare, with all-cause healthcare costs estimated at $22,818 per patient annually, compared with $15,362 per control (P < 0.001). HRQoL and activity impairment were also worse among patients than controls.
Untreated HCV infection is associated with substantial economic costs to society, through loss of productivity and increased use of healthcare resources, and with impaired well-being of the patient.
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ABSTRACT: Background Identifying gaps in care for people with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is important to clinicians, public health officials, and federal agencies. The objective of this study was to systematically review the literature to provide estimates of the proportion of chronic HCV-infected persons in the United States (U.S.) completing each step along a proposed HCV treatment cascade: (1) infected with chronic HCV; (2) diagnosed and aware of their infection; (3) with access to outpatient care; (4) HCV RNA confirmed; (5) liver fibrosis staged by biopsy; (6) prescribed HCV treatment; and (7) achieved sustained virologic response (SVR). Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for articles published between January 2003 and July 2013. Two reviewers independently identified articles addressing each step in the cascade. Studies were excluded if they focused on specific populations, did not present original data, involved only a single site, were conducted outside of the U.S., or only included data collected prior to 2000. Results 9,581 articles were identified, 117 were retrieved for full text review, and 10 were included. Overall, 3.5 million people were estimated to have chronic HCV in the U.S. Fifty percent (95% CI 43–57%) were diagnosed and aware of their infection, 43% (CI 40–47%) had access to outpatient care, 27% (CI 27–28%) had HCV RNA confirmed, 17% (CI 16–17%) underwent liver fibrosis staging, 16% (CI 15–16%) were prescribed treatment, and 9% (CI 9–10%) achieved SVR. Conclusions Continued efforts are needed to improve HCV care in the U.S. The proposed HCV treatment cascade provides a framework for evaluating the delivery of HCV care over time and within subgroups, and will be useful in monitoring the impact of new screening efforts and advances in antiviral therapy.PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e101554. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0101554 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Treatment for chronic hepatitis C (CH-C) is rapidly changing and moving away from an interferon and ribavirin-based therapy to interferon-free ribavirin-free all oral regimens. These regimens are simpler and shorter to administer with very high efficacy rates and better side effect profiles. As advances in the treatment of CH-C occur, it is imperative to capture both clinical outcomes (efficacy and safety) as well as patient-reported outcomes (PROs). In fact, PROs assesses and quantifies the impact of these regimens on patient experience. PROs assess patients' health-related quality of life (HRQOL) especially in the realms of fatigue and neuropsychiatric issues such as depression which can affect treatment adherence and work productivity. To review the literature related to PRO's in HCV patients and summarise the impact of CH-C and its treatment on PROs. Databases Ovid MEDLINE and PubMed were searched from 1990 to October 2014 using a combination of MEsh, thesaurus terms and relevant text words: hepatitis C, CH-C, treatment, quality of life, health-related quality of life, fatigue, work productivity, adherence, patient-reported outcomes, direct acting anti-viral agents and second generation direct acting anti-viral agents. Each manuscript was assessed for pertinence to the issue of PROs in CH-C as well as the quality of study design and publications. From the literature, it is evident that CH-C patients have baseline PRO impairment. Furthermore, treatment with interferon with or without ribavirin and first generation DAAs causes additional PRO burden which can negatively impact treatment adherence and indirectly, treatment efficacy and work productivity. The new treatment regimens with interferon- and ribavirin-free regimens not only have very high efficacy, but also result in the improvement of PRO scores as early as 2 weeks into treatment as well as possibly better adherence to treatment regimens. CH-C and its treatment have been associated with patient-reported outcome impairment. The new IF-free and RBV-free regimens are associated with high efficacy and substantial improvement of patient-reported outcomes in clinical trial setting. Although very encouraging, more data are needed to assess patient-reported outcomes, adherence and work productivity of CH-C patients in the real world setting of clinical practice. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 01/2015; 41(6). DOI:10.1111/apt.13090 · 5.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The value of adding simeprevir (SMV) vs placebo (PBO) to peginterferon and ribavirin (PR) for treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection was examined using patient-reported outcomes (PROs); further, concordance of PROs with virology endpoints and adverse events (AEs) was explored. Patients (n = 768 SMV/PR, n = 393 PBO/PR) rated fatigue (FSS), depressive symptoms (CES-D) and functional impairment (WPAI: Hepatitis C Productivity, Daily Activity and Absenteeism) at baseline and throughout treatment in three randomised, double-blind trials comparing the addition of SMV or PBO during initial 12 weeks of PR. PR was administered for 48 weeks (PBO group) and 24/48 weeks (SMV group) using a response-guided therapy (RGT) approach. Mean PRO scores (except Absenteeism) worsened from baseline to Week 4 to the same extent in both groups but reverted after Week 24 for SMV/PR and only after Week 48 for PBO/PR. Accordingly, there was a significantly lower area under the curve (baseline-Week 60, AUC60 ) and fewer weeks with clinically important worsening of scores in the SMV/PR group at any time point. Incidences of patients with fatigue and anaemia AEs were similar in both groups, but FSS scores showed that clinically important increases in fatigue lasted a mean of 6.9 weeks longer with PBO/PR (P < 0.001). PRO score subgroup analysis indicated better outcomes for patients who met the criteria for RGT or achieved sustained virological response 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12); differences in mean PRO scores associated with fibrosis level were only observed with PBO/PR. Greater efficacy of SMV/PR enabled reduced treatment duration and reduced time with PR-related AEs without adding to AE severity. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Viral Hepatitis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.Journal of Viral Hepatitis 12/2014; DOI:10.1111/jvh.12365 · 3.31 Impact Factor