Lost productivity in four European countries among patients with Rheumatic disorders: are absenteeism and Presenteeism transferable?
ABSTRACT When national pharmacoeconomic guidelines are compared, different recommendations are identified on how to identify, measure and value lost productivity, leading to difficulties when comparing lost productivity estimates across countries. From a transferability point of view, the question arises of whether differences between countries regarding lost productivity are the result of using different calculation methods (methodological differences) or of other between-country differences. When lost productivity data differ significantly across countries, the transferability of lost productivity data across countries is hindered.
The objective of this study was to investigate whether country of residence has a significant influence on the quantity of lost productivity among patients with rheumatic disorders. Confounding factors that might differ between countries were corrected for, while the methodology used to identify and measure lost productivity was kept the same.
This question was investigated by means of an online questionnaire filled out by 200 respondents with a rheumatic disorder per country in four European countries, namely the Netherlands, the UK, Germany and France. In addition to those regarding lost productivity, the questionnaire contained questions about patient characteristics, disability insurance, disease characteristics, quality of life and job characteristics as these variables are expected to influence lost productivity in terms of absenteeism and presenteeism. The data were analysed by regression analyses, in which different components - being absent in last 3 months, number of days absent and presenteeism - of lost productivity were the main outcome measures and other variables, such as gender, impact of disease, shift work, job control, partial disability and overall general health, were corrected for.
The results showed that country sometimes has a significant influence on lost productivity and that other variables such as, for example, age, disease severity, number of contract hours, decision latitude, experienced health (as reported on the visual analogue scale) and partial disability, also influence lost productivity. A significant influence of country of residence was found on the variables 'being absent in the last three months', 'number of days absent' and 'quality of work on the last working day'. However, country did not influence 'quantity of work on the last working day' and 'overall presenteeism on the last working day'.
It can be concluded that country has a significant influence on lost productivity among patients with rheumatic disorders, when corrected for other variables that have an influence on absenteeism and presenteeism. Transferring lost productivity data across countries without adaptation is hindered by the significant differences between countries in this patient group. As a result, transferring lost productivity data, being either monetary values or volumes of productivity losses, between countries can give wrong estimations of the cost effectiveness of treatments.
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ABSTRACT: Productivity costs are usually estimated by multiplying the wage with the period absent. This can lead to an overestimation if compensation mechanisms occur. Until now only Dutch data are available on the influence of compensation mechanisms on lost productivity, but between-country differences in frequency and type of compensation mechanisms can be expected. The objective of this study was to understand whether compensation mechanisms for days absent from paid work differ in type and frequency across countries and to explore whether this would result in between-country differences in relevant lost productivity. Data from a cross-sectional survey among respondents with rheumatic disorders from four countries were the basis for this study. Analyses focused on respondents with paid employment who reported absence in the last 3 months. The different compensation mechanisms are described and the resulting lost productivity in terms of days absent was calculated with and without taking compensation mechanisms into account. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine which variables influence compensation mechanisms leading to relevant lost productivity. The results indicate that compensation mechanisms occur and are relevant in all four countries. Between-country differences in the type and frequency of compensation mechanisms and relevant lost productivity were observed. The logistic regression analyses indicate that, correcting for other variables, this is also the case for the use of compensation mechanisms leading to relevant lost productivity. Between-country differences in compensation mechanisms in case of absenteeism exist and could vary to such an extent that foreign relevant lost productivity data should be used with caution.Value in Health 07/2013; 16(5):740-4. DOI:10.1016/j.jval.2013.03.1624 · 2.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Impairments in work productivity and daily activities contribute to the burden of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It is thus essential to use an instrument assessing both work and daily activity impairments when studying the full impact of RA on individuals. The Work Productivity and Activity Impairment (WPAI) questionnaire is such an instrument. This study aims to linguistically validate the RA-specific WPAI (WPAI:RA) instrument in 20 new languages and to assess its content validity for individuals with RA. The linguistic validation of the questionnaire followed a standard methodology that included comprehension test interviews (n = 5 individuals with RA per language) to assess the relevance, understanding and acceptability of the WPAI:RA. Content validity of the instrument was simultaneously investigated. Comprehension testing showed that the WPAI:RA questionnaire was well understood similarly across countries; minor changes were made to ensure fidelity to the original concepts and for ease of comprehension. The majority of interviewees (66/93) considered its content comprehensive and appropriate to measure their ability to work and perform daily activities. The WPAI:RA questionnaire is now linguistically validated in 20 new languages [Czech (Czech Republic), Dutch (Belgium), English (Canada and UK), French (Belgium, Canada and France), German (Germany), Hungarian (Hungary), Italian (Italy), Polish (Poland), Portuguese (Brazil), Romanian (Romania), Russian (Russia and Ukraine), Spanish (Argentina, Mexico, Spain and US) and Ukrainian (Ukraine)]. The WPAI:RA questionnaire shows good content validity. It can thus be used in multi-country clinical trials to assess RA-related impact on the patients' ability to work and perform daily activities.The patient 03/2014; 7(2). DOI:10.1007/s40271-014-0053-4 · 1.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The question of how to value lost productivity in economic evaluations has been subject of debate in the past twenty years. According to the Washington panel, lost productivity influences health-related quality of life and should thus be considered a health effect instead of a cost to avoid double counting. Current empirical evidence on the inclusion of income loss when valuing health states is not decisive. We examined the relationship between three aspects of lost productivity (work-status, absenteeism and presenteeism) and patient or social valuation of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Cross-sectional survey data were collected from a total of 830 respondents with a rheumatic disorder from four West-European countries. Health-related quality of life was expressed in either the European societal utility using EQ-5D-3L or the patient valuation using EQ-VAS. The impact of work-status (four categories), absenteeism (absent from paid work during the past three months), and presenteeism (QQ method) on EQ-5D utilities and VAS scores was examined in linear regression analyses taking into account demographic characteristics and disease severity (duration, pain and restriction). The relationship between work-status, absenteeism or presenteeism and HRQoL was stronger for patient valuation than societal valuation. Compared to work-status and presenteeism the relationship between absenteeism and HRQoL was even less explicit. However, results for all measures of lost productivity are only marginally significant and negligible compared to the influence of disease-related restrictions. This survey study in patients with a rheumatic disorder in four European countries, does not fully support the Washington panel's claim that lost productivity is a significantly related with HRQoL, and this is even more apparent for absenteeism than for work-status and presenteeism. For West-European countries, there is no reason, to include absenteeism in the QALY. Findings need to be confirmed in other disease areas.Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation 11/2014; 12:24. DOI:10.1186/1478-7547-12-24 · 0.87 Impact Factor