Spleen serves as a reservoir of osteoclast precursors through vitamin D-induced IL-34 expression in osteopetrotic op/op mice.

Division of Hard Tissue Research, Institute for Oral Science, School of Dentistry, Matsumoto Dental University, Nagano 399-0781, Japan.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.81). 06/2012; 109(25):10006-11. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1207361109
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Osteoclasts are generated from monocyte/macrophage-lineage precursors in response to colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL). CSF-1-mutated CSF-1(op/op) mice as well as RANKL(-/-) mice exhibit osteopetrosis (OP) caused by osteoclast deficiency. We previously identified RANKL receptor (RANK)/CSF-1 receptor (CSF-1R) double-positive cells as osteoclast precursors (OCPs), which existed in bone in RANKL(-/-) mice. Here we show that OCPs do not exist in bone but in spleen in CSF-1(op/op) mice, and spleen acts as their reservoir. IL-34, a newly discovered CSF-1R ligand, was highly expressed in vascular endothelial cells in spleen in CSF-1(op/op) mice. Vascular endothelial cells in bone also expressed IL-34, but its expression level was much lower than in spleen, suggesting a role of IL-34 in the splenic generation of OCPs. Splenectomy (SPX) blocked CSF-1-induced osteoclastogenesis in CSF-1(op/op) mice. Osteoclasts appeared in aged CSF-1(op/op) mice with up-regulation of IL-34 expression in spleen and bone. Splenectomy blocked the age-associated appearance of osteoclasts. The injection of 2-methylene-19-nor-(20S)-1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) (2MD), a potent analog of 1α,25-dihidroxyvitamin D(3), into CSF-1(op/op) mice induced both hypercalcemia and osteoclastogenesis. Administration of 2MD enhanced IL-34 expression not only in spleen but also in bone through a vitamin D receptor-mediated mechanism. Either splenectomy or siRNA-mediated knockdown of IL-34 suppressed 2MD-induced osteoclastogenesis. These results suggest that IL-34 plays a pivotal role in maintaining the splenic reservoir of OCPs, which are transferred to bone in response to diverse stimuli, in CSF-1(op/op) mice. The present study also suggests that the IL-34 gene in vascular endothelial cells is a unique target of vitamin D.

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