Spleen serves as a reservoir of osteoclast precursors through vitamin D-induced IL-34 expression in osteopetrotic op/op mice.

Division of Hard Tissue Research, Institute for Oral Science, School of Dentistry, Matsumoto Dental University, Nagano 399-0781, Japan.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.81). 06/2012; 109(25):10006-11. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1207361109
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Osteoclasts are generated from monocyte/macrophage-lineage precursors in response to colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL). CSF-1-mutated CSF-1(op/op) mice as well as RANKL(-/-) mice exhibit osteopetrosis (OP) caused by osteoclast deficiency. We previously identified RANKL receptor (RANK)/CSF-1 receptor (CSF-1R) double-positive cells as osteoclast precursors (OCPs), which existed in bone in RANKL(-/-) mice. Here we show that OCPs do not exist in bone but in spleen in CSF-1(op/op) mice, and spleen acts as their reservoir. IL-34, a newly discovered CSF-1R ligand, was highly expressed in vascular endothelial cells in spleen in CSF-1(op/op) mice. Vascular endothelial cells in bone also expressed IL-34, but its expression level was much lower than in spleen, suggesting a role of IL-34 in the splenic generation of OCPs. Splenectomy (SPX) blocked CSF-1-induced osteoclastogenesis in CSF-1(op/op) mice. Osteoclasts appeared in aged CSF-1(op/op) mice with up-regulation of IL-34 expression in spleen and bone. Splenectomy blocked the age-associated appearance of osteoclasts. The injection of 2-methylene-19-nor-(20S)-1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) (2MD), a potent analog of 1α,25-dihidroxyvitamin D(3), into CSF-1(op/op) mice induced both hypercalcemia and osteoclastogenesis. Administration of 2MD enhanced IL-34 expression not only in spleen but also in bone through a vitamin D receptor-mediated mechanism. Either splenectomy or siRNA-mediated knockdown of IL-34 suppressed 2MD-induced osteoclastogenesis. These results suggest that IL-34 plays a pivotal role in maintaining the splenic reservoir of OCPs, which are transferred to bone in response to diverse stimuli, in CSF-1(op/op) mice. The present study also suggests that the IL-34 gene in vascular endothelial cells is a unique target of vitamin D.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Interleukin-34 (IL-34) is a newly discovered cytokine as an additional ligand for colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF1R), and its functions are expected to overlap with colony stimulating factor-1/macrophage-colony stimulating factor. We have previously shown that the IL-34 is primarily produced by neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and induces proliferation and neuroprotective properties of microglia which express CSF1R. However, the functions of IL-34 in the CNS are still elucidative. Here we show that CNS capillary endothelial cells also express CSF1R. IL-34 protected blood–brain barrier integrity by restored expression levels of tight junction proteins, which were downregulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines. The novel function of IL-34 on the blood–brain barrier may give us a clue for new therapeutic strategies in neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease.
    PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e115981. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0115981 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A second ligand for colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R) with distinct biologic activities had long been implicated but not appreciated until the recent discovery of interleukin (IL)-34. IL-34 and CSF-1 signal through this common receptor to mediate the biology of mononuclear phagocytic cells. Aberrant macrophage activation by CSF-1 and/or IL-34 is associated with numerous diseases, and clinical therapies targeting this pathway are being tested. Although IL-34 and CSF1 have distinct activities under physiologic conditions, they appear functionally redundant in various disease states. Thus, blocking the activity of both might be necessary for maximal efficacy.
    Drug Discovery Today 06/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.drudis.2014.05.016 · 5.96 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bone marrow is the major site of hematopoiesis in mammals. The bone marrow environment plays an essential role in the regulation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells by providing specialized niches in which these cells are maintained. Many cell types participate to the composition and regulation of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niches, integrating complex signals from the bone, immune and nervous systems. Among these cells, the bone-resorbing osteoclasts (OCLs) have been described as main regulators of HSC niches. They are not limited to carving space for HSCs, but they also provide signals that affect the molecular and cellular niche components. However, their exact role in HSC niches remains unclear because of the variety of models, signals and conditions used to address the question. The present review will discuss the importance of the implication of OCLs focusing on the formation of HSC niches, the maintenance of HSCs in these niches and the mobilization of HSCs from the bone marrow. It will underline the importance of OCLs in HSC niches.
    Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 07/2014; DOI:10.1016/ · 3.04 Impact Factor