Drip-and-Ship Thrombolytic Treatment Paradigm Among Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients in the United States
ABSTRACT To provide a national assessment of thrombolytic administration using drip-and-ship treatment paradigm.
Patients treated with the drip-and-ship paradigm among all acute ischemic stroke patients treated with thrombolytic treatment were identified within the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Thrombolytic utilization, patterns of referral, comparative in-hospital outcomes, and hospitalization charges related to drip-and-ship paradigm were determined. All the in-hospital outcomes were analyzed after adjusting for potential confounders using multivariate analysis.
Of the 22 243 ischemic stroke patients who received thrombolytic treatment, 4474 patients (17%) were treated using drip-and-ship paradigm. Of these 4474 patients, 81% were referred to urban teaching hospitals for additional care, and 7% of them received follow-up endovascular treatment. States with a higher proportion of patients treated using the drip-and-ship paradigm had higher rates of overall thrombolytic utilization (5.4% versus 3.3%; P<0.001). The rate of home discharge/self-care was significantly higher in patients treated with drip-and-ship paradigm compared with those who received thrombolytics through primary emergency department arrival in the multivariate analysis (OR, 1.198; 95% CI, 1.019-1.409; P=0.0286).
One of every 6 thrombolytic-treated patients in United States is treated using drip-and-ship paradigm. States with the highest proportion of drip-and-ship cases were also the states with the highest thrombolytic utilization.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The current guidelines do not recommend increasing the dose of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (IV rt-PA) for ischemic stroke patients weighing >100 kg. Obese patients are therefore receiving an IV rt-PA dose <0.9 mg/kg; however, the consequences of such underdosing are unknown. Our goal was to determine the relationship between obesity and clinical outcomes among acute ischemic stroke patients receiving IV rt-PA. METHODS: Data from all patients admitted to US hospitals between 2002 and 2009 who were treated with IV thrombolysis and who had a primary discharge diagnosis of stroke were included. The effect of obesity on rates of intracerebral hemorrhage and discharge outcomes was analyzed after adjusting for potential confounders using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Of the 81,579 patients with ischemic stroke treated with IV rt-PA, 5174 (6.3%) were categorized as obese. The intracerebral hemorrhage rates in obese and nonobese patients were significantly different (4.5% v 6.3%; P = .01). After adjusting for age, sex, presence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, location/teaching status and All Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Group severity scale, there was no difference in the rates of no to minimal disability between obese and nonobese patients (odds ratio [OR] 1.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.8-1.2; P = .8). Obese patients had lower odds of in-hospital mortality (OR 0.6; 95% CI 0.5-0.8; P = .001) but also more likely to be discharged with moderate to severe disability (OR 1.2; 95% CI 1.01-1.3; P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: Obese patients receiving IV rt-PA treatment for acute ischemic stroke appear to have a higher survival rate most likely related to their decreased rates of intracerebral hemorrhage.Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases: the official journal of National Stroke Association 02/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2013.01.022 · 1.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Enrollment of subjects in acute stroke trials is often hindered by narrow timeframes, because a large proportion of patients arrive via transfers from outside facilities rather than primary arrival at the enrolling hospital. Telemedicine networks have been increasingly utilized for provision of care for acute stroke patients at facilities outside of major academic centers. Treatment decisions made through Telemedicine networks in patients with acute ischemic stroke have been shown to be safe, reliable, and effective. With the expanding use of this technology and the impediments to enrolling subjects into clinical trials, this approach can be applied successfully to the field of clinical research. The antihypertensive treatment of acute cerebral hemorrhage II trial is a phase III randomized multicenter trial that has developed a protocol in collaboration with participating sites to implement the use of Telemedicine networks for the enrollment of research subjects. The protocol describes the operating procedures and legal and Institutional Review Board perspectives for its implementation.Journal of vascular and interventional neurology 06/2013; 6(1):1-6.
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ABSTRACT: Recent reports suggested better outcomes associated with the drip-and-ship paradigm for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) treated with thrombolysis. We hypothesized that a higher rate of stroke mimics (SM) among AIS treated in nonspecialized stroke centers that are transferred to comprehensive centers is responsible for such outcomes. Consecutive patients treated with thrombolysis according to the admission criteria were reviewed in a single comprehensive stroke center over 1 academic year (July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012). Information on the basic demographic, hospital complications, psychiatric diagnoses, and discharge disposition was collected. We identified those patients who were treated at a facility and then transferred to the tertiary center (ie, drip-and-ship paradigm). In addition to comparative and adjusted analysis to identify predictors for SM, a stratified analysis by the drip-and-ship status was performed. One hundred twenty patients were treated with thrombolysis for AIS included in this analysis; 20 (16.7%) were discharged with the final diagnosis of SM; 14 of those had conversion syndrome and 6 patients had other syndromes (seizures, migraine, and hypoglycemia). Patients with SM were younger (55.6 ± 15.0 versus 69.4 ± 14.9, P = .0003) and more likely to harbor psychiatric diagnoses (45% versus 9%; P ≤ .0001). Eighteen of 20 SM patients (90%) had the drip-and-ship treatment paradigm compared with 65% of those with AIS (P = .02). None of the SM had hemorrhagic complications, and all were discharged to home. Predictors of SM on adjusted analysis included the drip-and-ship paradigm (odds ratio [OR] 12.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.78, 92.1) and history of any psychiatric illness (OR 12.08; 95% CI 3.14, 46.4). Eighteen of 83 drip-and-ship patients (21.7%) were diagnosed with SM compared with 2 of 37 patients (5.4%) presented directly to the hub hospital (P = .02). The drip-and-ship paradigm and any psychiatric history predict the diagnosis of SM. None of the SM had thrombolysis-related complications, and all were discharged to home. These findings may explain the superior outcomes associated with the drip-and-ship paradigm in the treatment for AIS.Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases: the official journal of National Stroke Association 08/2013; 23(5). DOI:10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2013.07.012 · 1.99 Impact Factor