Drip-and-ship thrombolytic treatment paradigm among acute ischemic stroke patients in the United States.
ABSTRACT To provide a national assessment of thrombolytic administration using drip-and-ship treatment paradigm.
Patients treated with the drip-and-ship paradigm among all acute ischemic stroke patients treated with thrombolytic treatment were identified within the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Thrombolytic utilization, patterns of referral, comparative in-hospital outcomes, and hospitalization charges related to drip-and-ship paradigm were determined. All the in-hospital outcomes were analyzed after adjusting for potential confounders using multivariate analysis.
Of the 22 243 ischemic stroke patients who received thrombolytic treatment, 4474 patients (17%) were treated using drip-and-ship paradigm. Of these 4474 patients, 81% were referred to urban teaching hospitals for additional care, and 7% of them received follow-up endovascular treatment. States with a higher proportion of patients treated using the drip-and-ship paradigm had higher rates of overall thrombolytic utilization (5.4% versus 3.3%; P<0.001). The rate of home discharge/self-care was significantly higher in patients treated with drip-and-ship paradigm compared with those who received thrombolytics through primary emergency department arrival in the multivariate analysis (OR, 1.198; 95% CI, 1.019-1.409; P=0.0286).
One of every 6 thrombolytic-treated patients in United States is treated using drip-and-ship paradigm. States with the highest proportion of drip-and-ship cases were also the states with the highest thrombolytic utilization.
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ABSTRACT: Recent reports suggested better outcomes associated with the drip-and-ship paradigm for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) treated with thrombolysis. We hypothesized that a higher rate of stroke mimics (SM) among AIS treated in nonspecialized stroke centers that are transferred to comprehensive centers is responsible for such outcomes. Consecutive patients treated with thrombolysis according to the admission criteria were reviewed in a single comprehensive stroke center over 1 academic year (July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012). Information on the basic demographic, hospital complications, psychiatric diagnoses, and discharge disposition was collected. We identified those patients who were treated at a facility and then transferred to the tertiary center (ie, drip-and-ship paradigm). In addition to comparative and adjusted analysis to identify predictors for SM, a stratified analysis by the drip-and-ship status was performed. One hundred twenty patients were treated with thrombolysis for AIS included in this analysis; 20 (16.7%) were discharged with the final diagnosis of SM; 14 of those had conversion syndrome and 6 patients had other syndromes (seizures, migraine, and hypoglycemia). Patients with SM were younger (55.6 ± 15.0 versus 69.4 ± 14.9, P = .0003) and more likely to harbor psychiatric diagnoses (45% versus 9%; P ≤ .0001). Eighteen of 20 SM patients (90%) had the drip-and-ship treatment paradigm compared with 65% of those with AIS (P = .02). None of the SM had hemorrhagic complications, and all were discharged to home. Predictors of SM on adjusted analysis included the drip-and-ship paradigm (odds ratio [OR] 12.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.78, 92.1) and history of any psychiatric illness (OR 12.08; 95% CI 3.14, 46.4). Eighteen of 83 drip-and-ship patients (21.7%) were diagnosed with SM compared with 2 of 37 patients (5.4%) presented directly to the hub hospital (P = .02). The drip-and-ship paradigm and any psychiatric history predict the diagnosis of SM. None of the SM had thrombolysis-related complications, and all were discharged to home. These findings may explain the superior outcomes associated with the drip-and-ship paradigm in the treatment for AIS.Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases: the official journal of National Stroke Association 08/2013;
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ABSTRACT: The success of acute stroke treatment is first and foremost time-dependent, and the need for improvement in acute stroke management is demonstrated by the fact that only a minority of patients gain access to treatment – in particular, intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (IV tPA) – within the necessary time window. Standards of acute stroke care vary widely both regionally and nationally; consequently, various healthcare organizations have undertaken initiatives to measure and improve quality of care. To date, most quality measures have been process-based, focusing primarily on metrics of patient care in the acute hospital-based setting (e.g., time to recombinant tPA administration). Therefore, there remains a need for metrics designed to assess how improvements in process translate into patient outcomes. A global forum was convened to share best practice and provide consensus recommendations on core metrics for measuring improvements in access to care and patient outcomes. Recommendations for core metrics of patient outcomes include hospital-based outcomes (e.g., neurological status at 24 h, ambulatory status at discharge) and post-discharge outcomes (e.g., modified Rankin Scale score at 30 and/or 90 days). Recommendations for best practice relating to aspects of people, process, and technology involved in the stroke treatment pathway that may help provide improvements in these core outcome measures are also outlined.Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 04/2014; · 2.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The drip and ship paradigm for stroke patients enhances the rate of using intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IVT) in community hospitals. The safety and outcomes of patients treated with IVT for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) under the drip and ship paradigm were compared with patients directly treated at a comprehensive stroke center in the Busan metropolitan area of Korea. This was a retrospective study of patients with AIS treated with IVT between January 2009 and January 2012. Information on patients' baseline characteristics, neuroimaging, symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH), and outcome 90 days after using IVT was obtained from our stroke registry. We surveyed stroke neurologists regarding their pattern of post-thrombolysis care. During the observation periods, we selected 317 patients using IVT. Among these, 239 patients received IVT at our stroke center, and 78 were treated at 21 community hospitals under the drip and ship paradigm. Initial neurologic deficits and the size of ischemic lesions on magnetic resonance imaging were much more severe in patients treated with IVT under the drip and ship paradigm compared with patients treated at our comprehensive stroke center. The prevalence of a poor outcome (modified Rankin Scale score 3-6) 90 days after IVT was much higher in patients treated with the drip and ship paradigm than in those treated at our comprehensive stroke center. Regarding the occurrence of sICH, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups. The clinical characteristics and outcomes after using IVT under the drip and ship paradigm may differ greatly among stroke care systems.Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases: the official journal of National Stroke Association 10/2013;