Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major public health problem with approximately 3% of the world's population thought to be chronically infected. However, population-based data regarding HCV incidence rates, prevalence, residence, age, and gender distributions within North America are limited. We aimed at providing a detailed descriptive epidemiology of HCV infection in a North American population with a focus on time trends in incidence rates and prevalence of newly diagnosed HCV infection since 1991, the time when laboratory testing for HCV infections became first available.
A Research Database was developed linking records from multiple administrative sources. HCV positive residents of the Canadian province of Manitoba were identified during a twelve-year period (1991-2002). The cumulative and annual incidence rates and the prevalence of newly diagnosed HCV infection in Manitoba were examined and compared between different demographic groups and urban vs. rural residents.
A total of 5018 HCV positive cases were identified over a 12-year period. The annual number of newly diagnosed HCV infections peaked in 1998 (59.2/100,000). On the other hand, the known prevalence of HCV continued to increase (4.6-fold during the 12-year study period) among both men and women reflecting the chronic nature of the disease. Males were 1.7 times more often infected than females. HCV infections were more common in urban centers.
Between 1995 and 2002, there was a fairly constant trend for newly diagnosed HCV infection, ranging from approximately 500 to 600 new cases annually. Hence, with a stable population size, and a low case fatality rate, the prevalence of HCV infected persons in our population has been steadily rising. There is no evidence to suggest that the incidence of HCV infection will raise, however, the burden of chronic HCV infection will continue to increase, particularly amongst older males and those residing in urban centers.
"This is in agreement with previous studies carried out in Libya, which showed a peak in the prevalence of HCV among those 46-55 years old . Other studies, particularly from North America, also showed the highest prevalence in the 30-49 year age group in all racial groups [43,44]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Libya is one of the largest countries in Africa and has the longest coast in the Mediterranean basin facing southern Europe. High rates of prevalence of viral hepatitis have been observed in various regions in Africa, but the prevalence in Libya is not well documented. We report on a large-scale nationwide study that evaluated the epidemiology of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in Libya and assessed the risk factors involved.
A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2008 on 65,761 individuals all over Libya. The country was divided into 12 regions according to the population density and sampling within each region was carried out under the supervision of the National Centre for Prevention of Infectious Diseases. Serum samples were collected from both males and females of all ages in both urban and rural areas and tested for HBsAg for hepatitis B and anti-HCV antibody for hepatitis C. Prevalence rates were determined in regions and in different groups and correlated with different demographic and risk factors involved in the spread of these viruses.
The prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses varied regionally across the country. The overall prevalence of hepatitis B was 2.2% (95% CI 2.1%-2.3%) and was higher among males than females (1.4:1.0). Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence was 1.2% (95% CI 1.1-1.3) and it increased gradually after the age of 30 years (0.7-0.9% for < 30 years; 3.6% for >= 60 years). Prevalence of HBsAg was 0.8-0.9% below the age of 10 years, and higher but similar in older age groups (2.3-2.7%). There was an association between literacy and prevalence of hepatitis, particularly for HCV. Hospital admission, surgical operation, blood transfusion, and intravenous drug use were the main risk factors, and they were associated independently with a higher prevalence rate of viral hepatitis.
Libya may be considered an area of low-intermediate endemicity for hepatitis B virus infection, with lower rates in young age groups, and an area of low endemicity for hepatitis C. The prevalence of hepatitis B and C across Libya is not homogeneous, with indications of the effect of the higher rates in some neighbouring countries. Libya should adopt full coverage national plans and guidelines to face the future consequences of viral hepatitis, particularly hepatitis C virus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Wuwei City has the highest prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in China. From 2007 to 2011, the average reported incidence rate of hepatitis B was 634.56/100,000 people. However, studies assessing the epidemic features and risk factors of HCV in the general population of Wuwei City are limited.
A total of 7189 people were interviewed and screened for HCV antibodies. HCV RNA and HCV genotypes were analyzed by PCR. Relevant information was obtained from the general population using a standardized questionnaire, and association and logistic regression analyses were conducted.
The anti-HCV prevalence was 1.64% (118/7189), and HCV-RNA was detected in 37.29% (44/118) of the anti-HCV positive samples. The current HCV infection rate was 0.61% (44/7189) in the Wuwei general population. Hepatitis C infection rate was generally higher in the plains regions (χ2 = 27.54,P<0.05), and the most predominant HCV genotypes were 2a (59.1%) and 1b (34.1%). The concurrent HCV and HBV infection rate was 1.37%, and a history of blood transfusion (OR = 17.9, 95% CI: 6.1 to 52.6, p<0.001) was an independent risk factor for HCV positivity.
Although Wuwei is a highly endemic area for HBV, the anti-HCV positive rate in the general population is low. More than one-third of HCV-infected people were unaware of their infection; this may become an important risk factor for hepatitis C prevalence in the general population. Maintaining blood safety is important in order to help reduce the burden of HCV infection in developing regions of China.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e54815. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0054815 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Globally, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection leads to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, which in turn causes resultant hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Frequently, HCC recurs very soon even after a potentially curative treatment such as surgical interference or locoregional ablative therapies. Chronic HBV/HCV infection is often responsible for this recurrence, through secondary carcinogenesis. Antiviral therapy after a curative treatment of HCC plays an important role in preventing or delaying recurrence and improves survival in patients with HBV/HCV infection-related HCC. This article reviews the worldwide epidemiology of HBV/HCV infection, the association of viral infection with HCC, the mechanism of hepatitis virus-related hepatocarcinogenesis, and the paramount importance of antiviral therapy in the management of HCC.
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