A population-based study of the epidemiology of hepatitis C in a North American population
ABSTRACT Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major public health problem with approximately 3% of the world's population thought to be chronically infected. However, population-based data regarding HCV incidence rates, prevalence, residence, age, and gender distributions within North America are limited. We aimed at providing a detailed descriptive epidemiology of HCV infection in a North American population with a focus on time trends in incidence rates and prevalence of newly diagnosed HCV infection since 1991, the time when laboratory testing for HCV infections became first available.
A Research Database was developed linking records from multiple administrative sources. HCV positive residents of the Canadian province of Manitoba were identified during a twelve-year period (1991-2002). The cumulative and annual incidence rates and the prevalence of newly diagnosed HCV infection in Manitoba were examined and compared between different demographic groups and urban vs. rural residents.
A total of 5018 HCV positive cases were identified over a 12-year period. The annual number of newly diagnosed HCV infections peaked in 1998 (59.2/100,000). On the other hand, the known prevalence of HCV continued to increase (4.6-fold during the 12-year study period) among both men and women reflecting the chronic nature of the disease. Males were 1.7 times more often infected than females. HCV infections were more common in urban centers.
Between 1995 and 2002, there was a fairly constant trend for newly diagnosed HCV infection, ranging from approximately 500 to 600 new cases annually. Hence, with a stable population size, and a low case fatality rate, the prevalence of HCV infected persons in our population has been steadily rising. There is no evidence to suggest that the incidence of HCV infection will raise, however, the burden of chronic HCV infection will continue to increase, particularly amongst older males and those residing in urban centers.
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ABSTRACT: Background Wuwei City has the highest prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in China. From 2007 to 2011, the average reported incidence rate of hepatitis B was 634.56/100,000 people. However, studies assessing the epidemic features and risk factors of HCV in the general population of Wuwei City are limited. Methods A total of 7189 people were interviewed and screened for HCV antibodies. HCV RNA and HCV genotypes were analyzed by PCR. Relevant information was obtained from the general population using a standardized questionnaire, and association and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results The anti-HCV prevalence was 1.64% (118/7189), and HCV-RNA was detected in 37.29% (44/118) of the anti-HCV positive samples. The current HCV infection rate was 0.61% (44/7189) in the Wuwei general population. Hepatitis C infection rate was generally higher in the plains regions (χ2 = 27.54,P<0.05), and the most predominant HCV genotypes were 2a (59.1%) and 1b (34.1%). The concurrent HCV and HBV infection rate was 1.37%, and a history of blood transfusion (OR = 17.9, 95% CI: 6.1 to 52.6, p<0.001) was an independent risk factor for HCV positivity. Conclusions Although Wuwei is a highly endemic area for HBV, the anti-HCV positive rate in the general population is low. More than one-third of HCV-infected people were unaware of their infection; this may become an important risk factor for hepatitis C prevalence in the general population. Maintaining blood safety is important in order to help reduce the burden of HCV infection in developing regions of China.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e54815. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0054815 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Globally, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection leads to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, which in turn causes resultant hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Frequently, HCC recurs very soon even after a potentially curative treatment such as surgical interference or locoregional ablative therapies. Chronic HBV/HCV infection is often responsible for this recurrence, through secondary carcinogenesis. Antiviral therapy after a curative treatment of HCC plays an important role in preventing or delaying recurrence and improves survival in patients with HBV/HCV infection-related HCC. This article reviews the worldwide epidemiology of HBV/HCV infection, the association of viral infection with HCC, the mechanism of hepatitis virus-related hepatocarcinogenesis, and the paramount importance of antiviral therapy in the management of HCC.Anti-cancer drugs 02/2013; DOI:10.1097/CAD.0b013e32835ec39a · 1.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An estimated 1% to 1.9% of North Americans are infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Although Indigenous peoples are considered to bear the highest burden, there are only limited data regarding the demographic features and epidemiology of hepatitis C in this population. To document the demographic characteristics, rates of newly diagnosed hepatitis C cases and prevalence of HCV infection in a Canadian First Nations population, and to compare the findings with an infected non-First Nations population. A research database spanning 1991 to 2002 was developed, linking records from multiple clinical and administrative sources. Over a 12-year period, 671 First Nations and 4347 non-First Nations HCV-positive Canadians were identified in the province of Manitoba. Demographics, residence and time trends were compared between infected First Nations and non-First Nations persons. HCV-infected First Nations individuals were younger (mean [± SD] age 33.0±0.4 years versus 39.7±0.2 years; P<0.0001), more often female (60% versus 40%; P<0.0001) and more often resided in urban centres (73% versus 27%; P<0.001). The rate of newly diagnosed HCV cases was 2.5-fold (91.1 per 100,000 versus 36.6 per 100,000; P<0.000) and prevalence 2.4-fold (801.7 per 100,000 versus 334.8 per 100,000; P<0.000) higher among the First Nations relative to non-First Nations populations. The results of the present large population-based study indicate that the First Nations population with hepatitis C is characteristically different from infected non-First Nations persons. The results also describe higher rates of newly diagnosed cases and prevalence of HCV infection in the First Nations population. These findings should serve as an important baseline for future primary prevention and therapeutic intervention strategies in this high-risk population.06/2013; 27(6):340-39.