Critical role of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) in the development of high fat-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.
ABSTRACT Ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) activity contributes to oxidative stress. However, CYP2E1 may have an important role in the pathogenesis of high-fat mediated non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Thus, the role of CYP2E1 in high-fat mediated NASH development was evaluated.
Male wild type (WT) and Cyp2e1-null mice were fed a low-fat diet (LFD, 10% energy-derived) or a high-fat diet (HFD, 60% energy-derived) for 10weeks. Liver histology and tissue homogenates were examined for various parameters of oxidative stress and inflammation.
Liver histology showed that only WT mice fed a HFD developed NASH despite the presence of increased steatosis in both WT and Cyp2e1-null mice fed HFD. Markers of oxidative stress such as elevated CYP2E1 activity and protein amounts, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, nitration, and glycation with increased phospho-JNK were all markedly elevated only in the livers of HFD-fed WT mice. Furthermore, while the levels of inflammation markers osteopontin and F4/80 were higher in HFD-fed WT mice, TNFα and MCP-1 levels were lower compared to the corresponding LFD-fed WT. Finally, only HFD-fed WT mice exhibited increased insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance.
These data suggest that CYP2E1 is critically important in NASH development by promoting oxidative/nitrosative stress, protein modifications, inflammation, and insulin resistance.
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ABSTRACT: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by hepatic steatosis in the absence of a history of significant alcohol use or other known liver disease. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the progressive form of NAFLD. The Pathology Committee of the NASH Clinical Research Network designed and validated a histological feature scoring system that addresses the full spectrum of lesions of NAFLD and proposed a NAFLD activity score (NAS) for use in clinical trials. The scoring system comprised 14 histological features, 4 of which were evaluated semi-quantitatively: steatosis (0-3), lobular inflammation (0-2), hepatocellular ballooning (0-2), and fibrosis (0-4). Another nine features were recorded as present or absent. An anonymized study set of 50 cases (32 from adult hepatology services, 18 from pediatric hepatology services) was assembled, coded, and circulated. For the validation study, agreement on scoring and a diagnostic categorization ("NASH," "borderline," or "not NASH") were evaluated by using weighted kappa statistics. Inter-rater agreement on adult cases was: 0.84 for fibrosis, 0.79 for steatosis, 0.56 for injury, and 0.45 for lobular inflammation. Agreement on diagnostic category was 0.61. Using multiple logistic regression, five features were independently associated with the diagnosis of NASH in adult biopsies: steatosis (P = .009), hepatocellular ballooning (P = .0001), lobular inflammation (P = .0001), fibrosis (P = .0001), and the absence of lipogranulomas (P = .001). The proposed NAS is the unweighted sum of steatosis, lobular inflammation, and hepatocellular ballooning scores. In conclusion, we present a strong scoring system and NAS for NAFLD and NASH with reasonable inter-rater reproducibility that should be useful for studies of both adults and children with any degree of NAFLD. NAS of > or =5 correlated with a diagnosis of NASH, and biopsies with scores of less than 3 were diagnosed as "not NASH."Hepatology 07/2005; 41(6):1313-21. · 12.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chronic liver disease is usually asymptomatic until its late stages and also significant hepatic necroinflammation and fibrosis may be present in persistently normal ALT levels HBV, HCV carriers or similarly, in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Given the large number of persons in the general population which may harbor a clinically significant liver disease behind the screen of normal alanine aminotransferase, more attention should be devoted to future research for alternative noninvasive markers of liver damage.Journal of Viral Hepatitis 08/2009; 16(8):529-36. · 3.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Insulin resistance and increased cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) expression are both associated with and mechanistically implicated in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Although currently viewed as distinct factors, insulin resistance and CYP2E1 expression may be interrelated through the ability of CYP2E1-induced oxidant stress to impair hepatic insulin signaling. To test this possibility, the effects of in vitro and in vivo CYP2E1 overexpression on hepatocyte insulin signaling were examined. CYP2E1 overexpression in a hepatocyte cell line decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and IRS-2 in response to insulin. CYP2E1 overexpression was also associated with increased inhibitory serine 307 and 636/639 IRS-1 phosphorylation. In parallel, the effects of insulin on Akt activation, glycogen synthase kinase 3, and FoxO1a phosphorylation, and glucose secretion were all significantly decreased in CYP2E1 overexpressing cells. This inhibition of insulin signaling by CYP2E1 overexpression was partially c-Jun N-terminal kinase dependent. In the methionine- and choline-deficient diet mouse model of steatohepatitis with CYP2E1 overexpression, insulin-induced IRS-1, IRS-2, and Akt phosphorylation were similarly decreased. These findings indicate that increased hepatocyte CYP2E1 expression and the presence of steatohepatitis result in the down-regulation of insulin signaling, potentially contributing to the insulin resistance associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2005; 280(11):9887-94. · 4.65 Impact Factor