Microarray analysis and biochemical correlations of oxidative stress responsive genes in retinoblastoma.
ABSTRACT Oxidative stress, which refers to the biological damage caused by free radicals produced in excess of innate antioxidant defenses, is indicated in the ocular cancer retinoblastoma (RB). Here we have analysed the differential expression of oxidative stress responsive genes in oxidant-induced RB cells, and in RB tumor tissues.
The study included cultured RB cells, and four RB tumor tissues. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in Y79 cells and the RB tumor induced by hydrogen peroxide were quantified by Dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence assay. We then analysed the gene expression profile of cultured RB cells induced with hydrogen peroxide (400 µM H(2)O(2) for 8 h) by microarray analysis, and the expression of select genes were validated in Y79 cells and RB tumor tissues by real-time PCR analysis.
The oxidant-induced RB tumors showed an average increase in ROS levels of 44-fold compared to induced non-neoplastic donor retina. H(2)O(2)-induced RB cell line showed a 3-fold increase in ROS levels. Microarray analysis on RB cell line induced with H(2)O(2) showed differentially regulated genes involved in cellular processes such as: oxidative stress, angiogenesis, lipid metabolism, cell proliferation, and cell signaling pathways. Several up-regulated genes such as SOD, GPX, CAT, CDC25A, CREBBP, JUN, MMP-2, iNOS, CRYAA, RXRA, ACACB and HMGCR were validated by real-time PCR. These results corroborated with the gene expression analysis in RB tumor tissues. Relating the antioxidant gene expression with the clinico-pathologic features of the tumor tissues, we found that the tumor with invasion of choroid, optic nerve and retinal pigment epithelium, had relatively higher ROS levels and minimal antioxidant gene expression, when compared with the tumor with only choroidal invasion.
The study suggests active involvement of redox signaling pathways in the pathogenesis of RB. Consideration of oxidative stress components in the clinical management of RB patients is emphasized.
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ABSTRACT: One of the greatest challenges in cancer drug therapy is to maximize the effectiveness of the active agent while reducing its systemic adverse effects. What is more, many widely-used chemoterapeutic agents present unfavorable physicochemical properties (e.g. low solubility, lack of chemical or biological stability) that hamper or limit their therapeutic applications. All these issues may be overcome by designing adequate drug delivery systems; nanocarriers are particularly suitable for this purpose. Nanosystems can be used for targeted-drug release, treatment, diagnostic imaging and therapy monitoring. They allow the formulation of drug delivery systems with user-defined characteristics regarding solubility, biodegradability, particle size, release kinetics and active targeting, among others. This review (Part I) focuses on recent patents published between 2008 and the present day, related to nanospheres, nanocapsules and nanogels applied to anticancer drug therapy. Other nanosystems will be covered in a second article (Part II), currently in preparation.Recent patents on anti-cancer drug discovery. 12/2014; 9(1):83-98.
- Natural Science. 01/2013;
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ABSTRACT: Retinoblastoma (RB) is a malignant intra-ocular neoplasm that affects children (usually below the age of 5 years). In addition to conventional chemotherapy, novel therapeutic strategies that target metabolic pathways such as glycolysis and lipid metabolism are emerging. Fatty acid synthase (FASN), a lipogenic multi-enzyme complex, is over-expressed in retinoblastoma cancer. The present study evaluated the biochemical basis of FASN inhibition induced apoptosis in cultured Y79 RB cells. FASN inhibitors (cerulenin, triclosan and orlistat) significantly inhibited FASN enzyme activity (P < 0.05) in Y79 RB cells. This was accompanied by a decrease in palmitate synthesis (end-product depletion), and increased malonyl CoA levels (substrate accumulation). Differential lipid profile was biochemically estimated in neoplastic (Y79 RB) and non-neoplastic (3T3) cells subjected to FASN inhibition. The relative proportion of phosphatidyl choline to neutral lipids (triglyceride + total cholesterol) in Y79 RB cancer cells was found to be higher than the non-neoplastic cells, indicative of altered lipid distribution and utilization in tumour cells. FASN inhibitors treated Y79 RB and fibroblast cells showed decrease in the cellular lipids (triglyceride, cholesterol and phosphatidyl choline) levels. Apoptotic DNA damage induced by FASN inhibitors was accompanied by enhanced lipid peroxidation.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 06/2013; · 4.66 Impact Factor