Rapid mobilization of membrane lipids in wheat leaf sheaths during incompatible interactions with Hessian fly.
ABSTRACT Hessian fly (HF) is a biotrophic insect that interacts with wheat on a gene-for-gene basis. We profiled changes in membrane lipids in two isogenic wheat lines: a susceptible line and its backcrossed offspring containing the resistance gene H13. Our results revealed a 32 to 45% reduction in total concentrations of 129 lipid species in resistant plants during incompatible interactions within 24 h after HF attack. A smaller and delayed response was observed in susceptible plants during compatible interactions. Microarray and real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses of 168 lipid-metabolism-related transcripts revealed that the abundance of many of these transcripts increased rapidly in resistant plants after HF attack but did not change in susceptible plants. In association with the rapid mobilization of membrane lipids, the concentrations of some fatty acids and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) increased specifically in resistant plants. Exogenous application of OPDA increased mortality of HF larvae significantly. Collectively, our data, along with previously published results, indicate that the lipids were mobilized through lipolysis, producing free fatty acids, which were likely further converted into oxylipins and other defense molecules. Our results suggest that rapid mobilization of membrane lipids constitutes an important step for wheat to defend against HF attack.
- SourceAvailable from: Xuming Liu[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Wheat -- Hessian fly interaction follows a typical gene-for-gene model. Hessian fly larvae die in wheat plants carrying an effective resistance gene, or thrive in susceptible plants that carry no effective resistance gene. Gene sets affected by Hessian fly attack in resistant plants were found to be very different from those in susceptible plants. Differential expression of gene sets was associated with differential accumulation of intermediates in defense pathways. Our results indicated that resources were rapidly mobilized in resistant plants for defense, including extensive membrane remodeling and release of lipids, sugar catabolism, and amino acid transport and degradation. These resources were likely rapidly converted into defense molecules such as oxylipins; toxic proteins including cysteine proteases, inhibitors of digestive enzymes, and lectins; phenolics; and cell wall components. However, toxicity alone does not cause immediate lethality to Hessian fly larvae. Toxic defenses might slow down Hessian fly development and therefore give plants more time for other types of defense to become effective. Our gene expression and metabolic profiling results suggested that remodeling and fortification of cell wall and cuticle by increased deposition of phenolics and enhanced cross-linking were likely to be crucial for insect mortality by depriving Hessian fly larvae of nutrients from host cells. The identification of a large number of genes that were differentially expressed at different time points during compatible and incompatible interactions also provided a foundation for further research on the molecular pathways that lead to wheat resistance and susceptibility to Hessian fly infestation.BMC Genomics 06/2013; 14(1):423. · 4.04 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Heat stress exerts a profound impact on the resistance of plants to parasites. In this research, we investigated the impact of an acute transient heat stress on the resistance of the wheat line 'Molly,' which contains the R gene H13, to an avirulent Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor (Say)) population. We found that a significant portion of Molly seedlings stressed at 40 degrees C for 6 h during or after the initial Hessian fly larval attack became susceptible to otherwise avirulent insects, whereas unstressed control plants remained 100% resistant. Specifically, 77.8, 73.3, 83.3, and 46.7% of plants heat stressed at 0, 6,12, and 24 h, respectively, after the initial larval attack became susceptible. Biochemical analysis revealed that heat stress caused a transient decrease in 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, but an increase in salicylic acid accumulation in Molly plants. The change in phytohormones after heat stress and Hessian fly infestation was not observed in 'Newton,' a near-isogenic but Hessian fly susceptible wheat line. Instead, heat stress caused a relatively prolonged reduction in palmitoleic acid. The role of phytohormones in heat-induced loss of wheat resistance was discussed.Journal of Economic Entomology 02/2014; 107(1):389-95. · 1.61 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Heat stress exerts significant impact on plant‐parasite interactions. Phytohormones, such as salicylic acid (SA), play important roles in plant defense against parasite attacks. Here, we studied the impact of a combination of heat stress and exogenous SA on the resistance of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants to the Hessian fly [Mayetiola destructor (Say)]. We found that the wheat cultivar ‘Molly’, which contains the resistance gene H13, lost resistance to Hessian fly under heat stress (40°C for 3 and 6 h), and that exogenous application of SA on Molly seedlings right before heat stress can partially prevent the loss of resistance of Molly plants under heat conditions. Our findings have significant implications for understanding the dynamics of plant‐insect interactions in the context of heat stress.Journal of Economic Entomology 10/2014; 107(5). · 1.61 Impact Factor