Valence tautomerism in a high-valent manganese-oxo porphyrinoid complex induced by a Lewis acid.
ABSTRACT Addition of the Lewis acid Zn(2+) to (TBP(8)Cz)Mn(V)(O) induces valence tautomerization, resulting in the formation of [(TBP(8)Cz(+•))Mn(IV)(O)-Zn(2+)]. This new species was characterized by UV-vis, EPR, the Evans method, and (1)H NMR and supported by DFT calculations. Removal of Zn(2+) quantitatively restores the starting material. Electron-transfer and hydrogen-atom-transfer reactions are strongly influenced by the presence of Zn(2+).
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ABSTRACT: High-valent cobalt-oxo intermediates are proposed as reactive intermediates in a number of cobalt-complex-mediated oxidation reactions. Herein we report the spectroscopic capture of low-spin (S=1/2) CoIV-oxo species in the presence of redox-inactive metal ions, such as Sc3+, Ce3+, Y3+, and Zn2+, and the investigation of their reactivity in CH bond activation and sulfoxidation reactions. Theoretical calculations predict that the binding of Lewis acidic metal ions to the cobalt-oxo core increases the electrophilicity of the oxygen atom, resulting in the redox tautomerism of a highly unstable [(TAML)CoIII(O.)]2− species to a more stable [(TAML)CoIV(O)(Mn+)] core. The present report supports the proposed role of the redox-inactive metal ions in facilitating the formation of high-valent metal–oxo cores as a necessary step for oxygen evolution in chemistry and biology.Angewandte Chemie International Edition 07/2014; · 11.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Redox-inactive metal ions that function as Lewis acids play pivotal roles in modulating reactivities of oxygen-containing metal complexes in a variety of biological and biomimetic reactions, including dioxygen activation/formation and functionalization of organic substrates. Mononuclear nonheme iron(III)-peroxo species are invoked as active oxygen intermediates in the catalytic cycles of dioxygen activation by nonheme iron enzymes and their biomimetic compounds. Here, we report mononuclear nonheme iron(III)-peroxo complexes binding redox-inactive metal ions, [(TMC)Fe(III)(O2)](+)-M(3+) (M(3+) = Sc(3+) and Y(3+); TMC = 1,4,8,11-tetramethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane), which are characterized spectroscopically as a 'side-on' iron(III)-peroxo complex binding a redox-inactive metal ion, (TMC)Fe(III)-(μ,η(2):η(2)-O2)-M(3+) (2-M). While an iron(III)-peroxo complex, [(TMC)Fe(III)(O2)](+), does not react with electron donors (e.g., ferrocene), one-electron reduction of the iron(III)-peroxo complexes binding redox-inactive metal ions occurs readily upon addition of electron donors, resulting in the generation of an iron(IV)-oxo complex, [(TMC)Fe(IV)(O)](2+) (4), via heterolytic O-O bond cleavage of the peroxide ligand. The rates of the conversion of 2-M to 4 are found to depend on the Lewis acidity of the redox-inactive metal ions and the oxidation potential of the electron donors. We have also determined the fundamental electron-transfer properties of 2-M, such as the reduction potential and the reorganization energy in electron-transfer reaction. Based on the results presented herein, we have proposed a mechanism for the reactions of 2-M and electron donors; the reduction of 2-M to the reduced species, (TMC)Fe(II)-(O2)-M(3+) (2'-M), is the rate-determining step, followed by heterolytic O-O bond cleavage of the reduced species to form 4. The present results provide a biomimetic example demonstrating that redox-inactive metal ions bound to an iron(III)-peroxo intermediate play a significant role in activating the peroxide O-O bond to form a high-valent iron(IV)-oxo species.Chemical science (Royal Society of Chemistry : 2010). 07/2013; 4:3917-3923.
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ABSTRACT: Redox-inactive metal ions that function as Lewis acids play pivotal roles in modulating the reactivity of oxygen-containing metal complexes and metalloenzymes, such as the oxygen-evolving complex in photosystem II and its small-molecule mimics. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of non-haem iron(III)-peroxo complexes that bind redox-inactive metal ions, (TMC)Fe(III)-(μ,η(2):η(2)-O2)-M(n+) (M(n+) = Sr(2+), Ca(2+), Zn(2+), Lu(3+), Y(3+) and Sc(3+); TMC, 1,4,8,11-tetramethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane). We demonstrate that the Ca(2+) and Sr(2+) complexes showed similar electrochemical properties and reactivities in one-electron oxidation or reduction reactions. However, the properties and reactivities of complexes formed with stronger Lewis acidities were found to be markedly different. Complexes that contain Ca(2+) or Sr(2+) ions were oxidized by an electron acceptor to release O2, whereas the release of O2 did not occur for complexes that bind stronger Lewis acids. We discuss these results in the light of the functional role of the Ca(2+) ion in the oxidation of water to dioxygen by the oxygen-evolving complex.Nature Chemistry 10/2014; 6(10):934-40. · 21.76 Impact Factor