Plants used in traditional medicine have stood up to the test of time and contributed many novel compounds for preventive
and curative medicine to modern science. India is sitting on a gold mine of well recorded and traditionally well practiced
knowledge of herbal medicine. Specially, plants growing at high altitude in Himalayan pastures are time-honored sources of
health and general well being of local inhabitants. As of today, Himalayan plants are a major contributor to the herbal pharmaceutical
industry both of India and other countries. Plants growing at higher altitudes are subjected to an assault of diverse testing
situations including higher doses of mutagenic UV-radiation, physiological drought, desiccation and strong winds. Plants interact
with stressful environments by physiological adaptation and altering the biochemical profile of plant tissues and producing
a spectrum of secondary metabolites. Secondary metabolites are of special interest to scientists because of their unique pharmacophores
and medicinal properties. Secondary metabolites like polyphenols, terpenes and alkaloids have been reported to possess antimutagenic
and anticancer properties in many studies. The fundamental aspiration of the current review is to divulge the antimutagenic/anticancer
potential of five alpine plants used as food or medicine by the populations living at high altitudes.
"e l s e v i e r . c o m / l o c a t e / t i v Please cite this article as: Skrzypczak, A., et al., Antigenotoxic, anti-photogenotoxic and antioxidant activities of natural naphthoquinone shikonin and acetylshikonin and Arnebia..., Toxicology in Vitro (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2015.09.029 antimutagenic against benzo[a]pyrene and 4-nitroquinoline N-oxide toward Salmonella typhimurium TA98 in Ames test (Papageorgiou et al., 1999; Bhatia et al., 2011). However the potency of naphthoquinone to diminish the photogenotoxic effect of chemicals has not been discussed as yet. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antigenotoxic and antioxidant potential of shikonin (SH), acetylshikonin (ACS) and Arnebia euchroma callus extract (EXT). The antigenotoxic activity was investigated by the umu-test as the inhibition of the SOS system induction caused by genotoxic chemical agents - 4-nitroquinoline oxide and 2-aminoanthracene. Moreover the ability of SH, ACS and EXT to prevent photogenotoxicity triggered by chlorpromazine under UVA irradiation was measured. The cytotoxicity of EXT toward V79 Chinese hamster cell line was additionally assessed. Shikonin and acetylshikonin had no effect on 4-NQO induced genotoxicity whereas EXT demonstrated an unclear effect. The protection against 2AA induced genotoxicity was observed for all tested substances. The highest protection was demonstrated for EXT with inhibition of 66%. SH and ACS reduced 2AA genotoxicity with inhibition of about 60%. Under UVA the strongest and dose-dependent activity was observed for EXT. Acetylshikonin was a weak anti-photogenotoxin whereas shikonin had no clear effect. EXT was highly cytotoxic toward the V79 cell line - the cells' morphology was affected seriously and apoptosis was impacted. The antioxidant activity of SH, ACS and EXT was studied by means of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. All three samples exhibited radical scavenging properties.
Toxicology in Vitro 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.tiv.2015.09.029 · 2.90 Impact Factor
") and antitumor effects (Darbinian-Sarkissian et al., 2006). The H. perforatum-derived products are available as teas, tinctures, juices, and oily macerates (Bhatia et al., 2011) and are often used both for therapeutic purposes and as a flavoring in the preparation of foods and alcoholic beverages (Maškovicét al., 2011). Hyp is polycyclic phenanthroperylenedione exhibiting high lipophilicity what results in its high aggregation and preferential binding to the cellular membrane (Kairyte et al., 2012). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is focused on the evaluation of possibility to control microbes on the surface of fruits and vegetables (FV) by hypericin (Hyp)-based photosensitization. The effect of Hyp-based photosensitization on survival of Bacillus cereus in vitro and on the surface of FV was examined using different Hyp concentrations (1.5 ⋅ 10−5–1 ⋅ 10−8 M) and illumination (0–9.2 J/cm2; λ = 585 nm; intensity – 3.84 mW/cm2). Results indicate that Hyp-based photosensitization effectively (4.4 log CFU/mL) reduces the population of Bacillus in vitro. Inactivation of mesophilic bacteria on the surface of FV reached 0.6–0.72 log CFU/g and was comparable with that of high power pulsed light (HPPL) treatment. No significant increase of temperature was detected on the surface of treated FV. Data reveal that this treatment has no significant impact on antioxidant activity and color of treated FV and was comparable with the effects of HPPL. Hyp-based photosensitization as nonthermal, environment-friendly and cost effective antimicrobial treatment seems promising for development of innovative preservation of fruits and vegetables.
"It is native to India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan and Sikkim. R. emodi finds an extensive use in Ayurvedic and other traditional medical systems, like homeopathic, Tibetan, Unani and Chinese systems (Bhatia et al., 2011). Extracts from the roots, bark and leaves of rhubarb have been used as a laxative since ancient times and presently are widely used in various herbal preparations (Wang et al., 2007). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rheum emodi (Polygonaceae), a multipurpose medicinal herb is a rich repository of pharmacologically active secondary metabolites known as anthraquinones. The present study entails HPLC quantitation and in vitro activity of four major constituents and the extracts of R. emodi. The anthraquinone glycosides were more abundant than their aglycone constituents viz. emodin and chrysophanol. MTT assay was used to assess the in vitro antiproliferative activity of anthraquinones and extracts on four cancer cell lines namely MIAPaCa-2, HCT-116, MCF-7 and T47D. The cytotoxicity was more obvious on MIAPaCa-2. Further, the study of mechanism of action involving cell cycle analysis and determination of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) loss was also investigated. The extracts significantly reduced cell viability by inducing apoptosis/necrosis and cell cycle arrest with concurrent loss of MMP (∆ψm) in a concentration dependent manner. The methanolic extract of rhizome (SPL5) with the least IC50 value (25 μg/ml) showed a significant increase in the percentage of apoptotic/necrotic cells (42.3% at 100 μg/ml) compared to that of vehicle treated cells (11.6%). These cellular manifestations corresponded remarkably with a decrease in integrity of the mitochondrial membrane. In conclusion, SPL5 with emodin and chrysophanol as the preponderant constituents exhibited considerable antiproliferative activity possibly by reducing cell viability and stirring up ∆ψm loss.
South African Journal of Botany 08/2014; 95:1-8. DOI:10.1016/j.sajb.2014.07.012 · 0.98 Impact Factor
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