Anticancer potential of Himalayan plants

Phytochemistry Reviews (Impact Factor: 2.89). 01/2011; 10(3):309-323. DOI: 10.1007/s11101-010-9202-0

ABSTRACT Plants used in traditional medicine have stood up to the test of time and contributed many novel compounds for preventive
and curative medicine to modern science. India is sitting on a gold mine of well recorded and traditionally well practiced
knowledge of herbal medicine. Specially, plants growing at high altitude in Himalayan pastures are time-honored sources of
health and general well being of local inhabitants. As of today, Himalayan plants are a major contributor to the herbal pharmaceutical
industry both of India and other countries. Plants growing at higher altitudes are subjected to an assault of diverse testing
situations including higher doses of mutagenic UV-radiation, physiological drought, desiccation and strong winds. Plants interact
with stressful environments by physiological adaptation and altering the biochemical profile of plant tissues and producing
a spectrum of secondary metabolites. Secondary metabolites are of special interest to scientists because of their unique pharmacophores
and medicinal properties. Secondary metabolites like polyphenols, terpenes and alkaloids have been reported to possess antimutagenic
and anticancer properties in many studies. The fundamental aspiration of the current review is to divulge the antimutagenic/anticancer
potential of five alpine plants used as food or medicine by the populations living at high altitudes.

Arnebia euchroma

Hippophae rhamnoides

Hypericum perforatum

Podophyllum hexandrum

Rheum emodi

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    ABSTRACT: Rheum emodi (Polygonaceae), a multipurpose medicinal herb is a rich repository of pharmacologically active secondary metabolites known as anthraquinones. The present study entails HPLC quantitation and in vitro activity of four major constituents and the extracts of R. emodi. The anthraquinone glycosides were more abundant than their aglycone constituents viz. emodin and chrysophanol. MTT assay was used to assess the in vitro antiproliferative activity of anthraquinones and extracts on four cancer cell lines namely MIAPaCa-2, HCT-116, MCF-7 and T47D. The cytotoxicity was more obvious on MIAPaCa-2. Further, the study of mechanism of action involving cell cycle analysis and determination of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) loss was also investigated. The extracts significantly reduced cell viability by inducing apoptosis/necrosis and cell cycle arrest with concurrent loss of MMP (∆ψm) in a concentration dependent manner. The methanolic extract of rhizome (SPL5) with the least IC50 value (25 μg/ml) showed a significant increase in the percentage of apoptotic/necrotic cells (42.3% at 100 μg/ml) compared to that of vehicle treated cells (11.6%). These cellular manifestations corresponded remarkably with a decrease in integrity of the mitochondrial membrane. In conclusion, SPL5 with emodin and chrysophanol as the preponderant constituents exhibited considerable antiproliferative activity possibly by reducing cell viability and stirring up ∆ψm loss.
    South African Journal of Botany 08/2014; 95:1-8. DOI:10.1016/j.sajb.2014.07.012 · 1.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is focused on the evaluation of possibility to control microbes on the surface of fruits and vegetables (FV) by hypericin (Hyp)-based photosensitization. The effect of Hyp-based photosensitization on survival of Bacillus cereus in vitro and on the surface of FV was examined using different Hyp concentrations (1.5 ⋅ 10−5–1 ⋅ 10−8 M) and illumination (0–9.2 J/cm2; λ = 585 nm; intensity – 3.84 mW/cm2). Results indicate that Hyp-based photosensitization effectively (4.4 log CFU/mL) reduces the population of Bacillus in vitro. Inactivation of mesophilic bacteria on the surface of FV reached 0.6–0.72 log CFU/g and was comparable with that of high power pulsed light (HPPL) treatment. No significant increase of temperature was detected on the surface of treated FV. Data reveal that this treatment has no significant impact on antioxidant activity and color of treated FV and was comparable with the effects of HPPL. Hyp-based photosensitization as nonthermal, environment-friendly and cost effective antimicrobial treatment seems promising for development of innovative preservation of fruits and vegetables.
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    ABSTRACT: Four new meroterpenoids, arnebinols A-D (1-4), and one new prenylated naphthoquinone, 5,8-O-dimethyl-11-deoxyalkannin (5), together with seven known meroterpenoids (6-12) were isolated from the roots of Arnebia euchroma. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated unambiguously by spectroscopic data analysis, as well as X-ray-single crystal diffraction analysis. Arnebinol A (1) and B (2) are rare meroterpenoids possessing a 6/10/5 tricyclic ring system. Compounds 1-12 were evaluated for their cytotoxicities against MG-63 and SNU387 human cancer cell lines. Compound 5 exhibited the most potent activity with IC50 values of 2.69 µM and 6.08 µM, respectively. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
    Planta Medica 03/2015; 81(4):320-6. DOI:10.1055/s-0035-1545693 · 2.34 Impact Factor