Special issue: entrepreneurship and education—links
between education and entrepreneurial activity
Mário Raposo & Arminda do Paço
Published online: 7 April 2010
# Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010
at national level, for both industrialized and developing countries, is well established and
supported by different reports. Relevant research suggests important links between
education, venture creation and entrepreneurial performance. Therefore, the study of the
precursors of the entrepreneurial activity offers important insights of the educational
impact. To the extent that education can provide a greater supply of entrepreneurs and
higherlevels of entrepreneurialperformance,its impact presents several important policy
questions, so appropriate investments are justified by the governments.
The definition of entrepreneurship education, adopted at European level, stresses
that this concept is much wider than just “training on how to start a business”.
Entrepreneurship is firstly a mindset. As attitudes take shape at an early age, school
education can greatly contribute to fostering entrepreneurial mindsets, starting from
primary school to the University level.
The growth of entrepreneurship education, and the associated research regarding
the impact of such education, arise interesting challenges both to institutions
delivering entrepreneurship education and for supporting organizations. Although
the findings about the link between entrepreneurial education and entrepreneurial
activity are not definitive, there is significant research suggesting this linkage.
This special issue of the International Entrepreneurship Management Journal
includes eight papers, theoretical and empirical, on several aspects and factors that
explain why entrepreneurship education is considered a key competence to young
people. The authors here presented also underline the impact of education on
entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial performance.
The first paper, conceptual in nature, provides an introduction to the problematic
of “teachability” of entrepreneurship. Heiko Haase (University of Applied Sciences
Worms) and Arndt Lautenschläger (University of Applied Sciences Jena), both from
Int Entrep Manag J (2011) 7:143–144
M. Raposo:A. do Paço (*)
Department of Business and Economics, NECE (Research Unit in Science Business),
University of Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal
Germany, promote a scientific discussion on this pedagogical aspect and conclude Download full-text
that future entrepreneurship education should desist from merely teaching
knowledge on business creation and rather focus on experiencing entrepreneurship.
Next, Dev Dutta, Jun Li and Michael Merenda from the University of New
Hampshire, present a research that aims to enhance the understanding of how pro-
spective entrepreneurs benefit from specialized entrepreneurship education combined
with a diversified educational experience. They found evidence that depth or spe-
cialization of entrepreneurship education is not enough for wealth creation.
By its turn David Kirby and Nagwa Ibrahim from the British University in Egypt
(Cairo) examine the Entrepreneurial Tendencies of students of business admin-
istration at the British University in Egypt using the Durham University General
Enterprising Tendency Test. Their study emphasise the brain dominance of the
students and makes proposals for future research.
Following three papers are mainly focuses in the field of entrepreneurship in-
tentions. Thus, Francisco Liñán, Juan Rodríguez-Cohard and José Rueda-Cantuche,
respectively from the Universidad de Sevilla, Universidad de Jaén and Universidad
Pablo de Olavide, (Spain), provide empirically-based suggestions for the design of
improved entrepreneurship education initiatives. The empirical analysis is based on
two essential elements: firstly, an already validated instrument (EIQ); secondly, a
statistical method (factor-regression procedure) which is not dependent on any
Fifth paper presented by Olivier Giacomin, Frank Janssen, Mark Pruett, Rachel
Shinnar, Francisco Llopis and Bryan Toney from Belgium (Université Catholique de
Louvain), USA (Appalachian State University) and Spain (University of Alicante),
question if entrepreneurship education is the same in every country or should it be
adapted to each context. They examine whether differences exist among American,
Asian and European students in terms of entrepreneurial intentions and dispositions,
as well as motivations and perceived barriers for business startup.
José Sánchez García, from University of Salamanca (Spain), tests the effect of
entrepreneurship education programmes on the entrepreneurial competencies and
intention of university students in order to confirm (or disconfirm) conventional
wisdom that entrepreneurial education increases the intention to start a business. The
results showedthatstudentsinthe ‘programme’ groupincreasedtheir competenciesand
intention towards self-employment, whereas students in the control group did not.
The seventh paper focuses an interesting topic intending to evaluate the
contribution of yoga to the entrepreneurial potential of university students. Carla
Marques (University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro), João Ferreira, Ricardo
Gouveia Rodrigues (both from University of Beira Interior) and Mariza Ferreira, all
from Portugal, using a SEM approach, analyse the characteristics associated with
entrepreneurs and yogis, seeking to understand the personal attributes and the
psychological and cognitive predispositions of both groups.
The last paper (Torben Bager, University of Southern Denmark) refers to a camp
model for entrepreneurship teaching. The author shows that a camp site can be an
efficient way for team building, creativity training and innovation boosting purposes.
By means of in-depth studies of three quite different camps, all demonstrating
convincing results, the learning outcomes, pedagogies and principles for camps are
identified and discussed.
144 Int Entrep Manag J (2011) 7:143–144