Embryology of tribeDrypeteae, an enigmatic taxon ofEuphorbiaceae
ABSTRACT The tribeDrypeteae, whose traditional assignment inPhyllanthoideae ofEuphorbiaceae is now doubtful, is studied embryologically on the basis of a literature survey and examination of six additional species in two of the four constituent genera.Drypeteae are characterized by having several embryological features that are unknown in otherPhyllanthoideae, such as a two- or three-celled ovule archesporium; a thin, two cell-layered parietal layer in the nucellus; no nucellar beak or cap; an early disintegrating nucellar tissue; thick, multiplicative, inner and outer integuments; an endothelium; a few discrete vascular bundles in the outer integument; and a fibrous exotegmen (or its derived state). EmbryologicallyDrypeteae do not fit within thePhyllanthoideae and, as available nucleotide sequence data from therbcL gene suggest, are rather placed nearErythroxylaceae, Rhizophoraceae, Chrysobalanaceae, andLinaceae. Drypeteae share with those families a combination of the fibrous exotegmen, the endothelium, and the thick, multiplicative inner integument.
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ABSTRACT: A survey of our own comparative studies on several larger clades of rosids and over 1400 original publications on rosid flowers shows that floral structural features support to various degrees the supraordinal relationships in rosids proposed by molecular phylogenetic studies. However, as many apparent relationships are not yet well resolved, the structural support also remains tentative. Some of the features that turned out to be of interest in the present study had not previously been considered in earlier supraordinal studies. The strongest floral structural support is for malvids (Brassicales, Malvales, Sapindales), which reflects the strong support of phylogenetic analyses. Somewhat less structurally supported are the COM (Celastrales, Oxalidales, Malpighiales) and the nitrogen-fixing (Cucurbitales, Fagales, Fabales, Rosales) clades of fabids, which are both also only weakly supported in phylogenetic analyses. The sister pairs, Cucurbitales plus Fagales, and Malvales plus Sapindales, are structurally only weakly supported, and for the entire fabids there is no clear support by the present floral structural data. However, an additional grouping, the COM clade plus malvids, shares some interesting features but does not appear as a clade in phylogenetic analyses. Thus it appears that the deepest split within eurosids–that between fabids and malvids - in molecular phylogenetic analyses (however weakly supported) is not matched by the present structural data. Features of ovules including thickness of integuments, thickness of nucellus, and degree of ovular curvature, appear to be especially interesting for higher level relationships and should be further explored. Although features of interest are not necessarily stable at the level of a large clade, they do show a considerable concentration in particular clades and are rare or lacking in others. This may be viewed as a special trend for this feature to evolve in this group or to be conserved as a synapomorphy (or a combination of both).Plant Systematics and Evolution 04/2012; 260(2):223-251. · 1.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We present phylogenetic analyses of Malpighiales, which are poorly understood with respect to relationships within the order, using sequences from rbcL, atpB, matK and 18SrDNA from 103 genera in 23 families. From several independent and variously combined analyses, a four-gene analysis using all sequence data provided the best resolution, resulting in the single most parsimonious tree. In the Malpighiales [bootstrap support (BS) 100%], more than eight major clades comprising a family or group of families successively diverged, but no clade containing more than six families received over 50% BS. Instead, ten terminal clades that supported close relationships between and among families (>50% BS) were obtained, between, for example, Balanopaceae and Chrysobalanaceae; Lacistemataceae and Salicaceae; and Phyllanthaceae and Picrodendraceae. The monophyly of Euphorbiaceae sens. str. were strongly supported (BS 100%), but its sister group was unclear. Euphorbiaceae sens. str. comprised two basally diverging clades (BS 100%): one leading to the Clutia group (Chaetocarpus, Clutia, Pera and Trigonopleura), and the other leading to the rest of the family. The latter shared a palisadal, instead of a tracheoidal exotegmen as a morphological synapomorphy. While both Acalyphoideae (excluding Dicoelia and the Clutia group) and Euphorbioideae are monophyletic, Crotonoideae were paraphyletic, requiring more comprehensive analyses.Journal of Plant Research 12/2006; 119(6):599-616. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A phylogenetic analysis of Euphorbiaceae sensu stricto is presented using sequences from rbcL, atpB, matK and 18S rDNA from 85 species and 83 genera. The combined analysis of four molecular markers resulted in only one most parsimonious tree and also generated new supported clades, which include Euphorbioideae + Acalyphoideae s.s., subclades A2 + A3, subclades A5 + A6 and a clade uniting subclades A2-A8 within Acalyphoideae s.s. A palisadal exotegmen is a possible synapomorphy for all the Euphorbiaceae, except for the subfamily Peroideae. The presence of vascular bundles in the inner integument and a thick inner integument were shown to be synapomorphies for the clade of inaperturate and articulated crotonoids and for the large clade of Euphorbioideae, Acalyphoideae s.s., inaperturate and articulated crotonoids, respectively. Characters of the aril and vascular bundles in the outer integument are discussed. The selected embryological characters were seen to be highly correlated with the molecular phylogeny. When the results of molecular phylogenetic analysis of a previous study and this study were adjusted along with the selected embryological characters, all clades within Euphorbiaceae were supported except for a clade comprising Euphorbioideae + Acalyphoideae s.s. + inaperturate crotonoids + articulated crotonoids + Adenoclineae s.l. and a clade uniting subclades A4-A8 within Acalyphoideae s.s.Journal of Plant Research 08/2007; 120(4):511-22. · 2.06 Impact Factor