Race Class stereotypes of women

Stanford University
Sex Roles (Impact Factor: 1.47). 06/1985; 13(1):65-75. DOI: 10.1007/BF00287461


Forty-four undergraduates assigned traditional stereotyping adjectives to middle-class black, middle-class white, lower-class black, and lower-class white female stimulus persons. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed that these Race Class stereotypes of women differed significantly by race and by social class, but there was no Race Class interaction. The stereotype of white women was rated significantly higher than that of black women on dependent, passive, and emotional. The stereotype of lower-class women was rated significantly higher than that of middle-class women on confused, dirty, hostile, inconsiderate, and irresponsible. Although the stereotypes of women differed significantly by race and social class, all were stereotypically feminine. In addition, the stereotypes of white women, and of middle-class women were most similar to traditional stereotypes of women. Thus, it was concluded that both race and social class are implicit variables in sex-role stereotypes.

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    • "Stereotypes that associate STEM with " masculine " characteristics, such as independence and agency, may contribute to ethnic variation in gendered constructions of STEM (Diekman et al., 2010; Diekman et al., 2011). 1 A growing body of work in psychology examines ethnic variation in the social constructions of gender and suggests that gendered conceptions of independence and agency as " masculine " are stronger among European Americans than African Americans (e.g., Binion, 1990; Black & Peacock, 2011; Goff, Thomas, & Jackson, 2008; Kane, 2000; Landrine, 1985; Livingston, Rosette, & Washington , 2012; Robinson, 1983). For example, although conventional gender stereotypes portray women as dependent, passive, and emotional, racialized variations of gender stereotypes portray European American women as more dependent, passive, and emotional than African American women (Landrine, 1985; see also Galinsky et al., 2013). Similarly, observers note that African Americans value independence and self-reliance in women to a greater extent than European Americans (Black & Peacock, 2011; Kane, 2000; Robinson, 1983). "
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    ABSTRACT: Stereotypes associating men and masculine traits with science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields are ubiquitous, but the relative strength of these stereotypes varies considerably across cultures. The present research applies an intersectional approach to understanding ethnic variation in gender-STEM stereotypes and STEM participation within an American university context. African American college women participated in STEM majors at higher rates than European American college women (Study 1, Study 2, and Study 4). Furthermore, African American women had weaker implicit gender-STEM stereotypes than European American women (Studies 2-4), and ethnic differences in implicit gender-STEM stereotypes partially mediated ethnic differences in STEM participation (Study 2 and Study 4). Although African American men had weaker implicit gender-STEM stereotypes than European American men (Study 4), ethnic differences between men in STEM participation were generally small (Study 1) or nonsignificant (Study 4). We discuss the implications of an intersectional approach for understanding the relationship between gender and STEM participation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
    Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology 09/2014; 21(2). DOI:10.1037/a0037944 · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    • "In an attempt to continue this line of feminist research, I focus my study on the racialized gender stereotypes attributed to Black and White women, and I did not include Black or White male targets as a comparison or normative group. Based on evidence by Niemann et al. (1994) and Landrine (1985), I proposed four predictions. First, I hypothesized that the most frequent traits ascribed to the female targets would be both similar and different as a result of race, supporting contingent intersectionality. "
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    ABSTRACT: Although intersectional theory and empirical evidence suggest that race impacts how women are perceived, there is a dearth of research on how the dominant culture stereotypes Black women compared to White women. The current study addresses this gap using an intersectional framework to investigate White college students' stereotypes of Black and White women. How these stereotypes fit with stereotypic images found in theoretical/empirical literature was also examined. Analyses of data from 109 White college students revealed that Black women were perceived in ways consistent with the Matriarch/Sapphire stereotypic image (e.g., strong and domineering). This image stands in contrast to current and previous perceptions of (White) women as affective and communal. The impact of the Matriarch/Sapphire image on Black women is likely mixed. Internalizing the strength aspect of the Matriarch/Sapphire could help Black women cope with the negative effects of racism, sexism, and classism. Conversely, being perceived as innately strong and domineering could increase the blame attributed to Black women who are survivors of sexual assault and/or domestic violence, limiting avenues of support and justice available to these women. It could also lead to a minimization of Black women’s mental and physical health problems. Interventions that educate professionals about the Matriarch/Sapphire image could help reduce its negative impact.
    Psychology of Women Quarterly 08/2011; 35(3):458-468. DOI:10.1177/0361684311406874 · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    • "Our respondents also found the Latina significantly more unsuitable for the job of PTO vice president than either the Jewish or Anglo target person. These data on differential perceptions of working-class and middle-class mothers of schoolchildren are congruent with findings reported earlier by Landrine (1985). Her sample of respondents, asked to describe " lower-class " and " middleclass " women in terms of society's stereotypes, rated the two groups of women significantly differently on 16 out of 23 adjectives. "
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    ABSTRACT: This article addresses the responses likely to be received by low-income parents from teachers and staff in their children’s public schools in the United States. A review of the relevant literature reveals that teachers and school administrators tend to subscribe to the dominant beliefs that low-income parents do not care about their children’s schooling, are not competent to help with homework, do not encourage achievement, and do not place a high value on education. This article presents examples of such middle-class bias in the words and actions of individual teachers, and research findings that tend to contradict these stereotypes. The barriers that exist for low-income parents in interacting with the schools are discussed, and suggestions are offered for ways in which schools can recognize and respect the standpoint and potential contributions of these parents.
    Journal of Social Issues 12/2000; 57(2):247 - 259. DOI:10.1111/0022-4537.00211 · 1.96 Impact Factor
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