Production of Lentiviral Vectors for Transducing Cells from the Central Nervous System
Department of Neurology and Hope Center for Neurological Disorders, Washington University School of Medicine, USA. Journal of Visualized Experiments
(Impact Factor: 1.33).
05/2012; 63(63):e4031. DOI: 10.3791/4031
Efficient gene delivery in the central nervous system (CNS) is important in studying gene functions, modeling neurological diseases and developing therapeutic approaches. Lentiviral vectors are attractive tools in transduction of neurons and other cell types in CNS as they transduce both dividing and non-dividing cells, support sustained expression of transgenes, and have relatively large packaging capacity and low toxicity. Lentiviral vectors have been successfully used in transducing many neural cell types in vitro and in animals. Great efforts have been made to develop lentiviral vectors with improved biosafety and efficiency for gene delivery. The current third generation replication-defective and self-inactivating (SIN) lentiviral vectors are depicted in Figure 1. The required elements for vector packaging are split into four plasmids. In the lentiviral transfer plasmid, the U3 region in the 5' long terminal repeat (LTR) is replaced with a strong promoter from another virus. This modification allows the transcription of the vector sequence independent of HIV-1 Tat protein that is normally required for HIV gene expression. The packaging signal (Ψ) is essential for encapsidation and the Rev-responsive element (RRE) is required for producing high titer vectors. The central polypurine tract (cPPT) is important for nuclear import of the vector DNA, a feature required for transducing non-dividing cells. In the 3' LTR, the cis-regulatory sequences are completely removed from the U3 region. This deletion is copied to 5' LTR after reverse transcription, resulting in transcriptional inactivation of both LTRs. Plasmid pMDLg/pRRE contains HIV-1 gag/pol genes, which provide structural proteins and reverse transcriptase. pRSV-Rev encodes Rev which binds to the RRE for efficient RNA export from the nucleus. pCMV-G encodes the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G) that replaces HIV-1 Env. VSV-G expands the tropism of the vectors and allows concentration via ultracentrifugation. All the genes encoding the accessory proteins, including Vif, Vpr, Vpu, and Nef are excluded in the packaging system. The production and manipulation of lentiviral vectors should be carried out according to NIH guidelines for research involving recombinant DNA (http://oba.od.nih.gov/oba/rac/Guidelines/NIH_Guidelines.pdf). An approval from individual Institutional Biological and Chemical Safety Committee may be required before using lentiviral vectors. Lentiviral vectors are commonly produced by cotransfection of 293T cells with lentiviral transfer plasmid and the helper plasmids encoding the proteins required for vector packaging. Many lentiviral transfer plasmids and helper plasmids can be obtained from Addgene, a non-profit plasmid repository (http://www.addgene.org/). Some stable packaging cell lines have been developed, but these systems provide less flexibility and their packaging efficiency generally declines over time. Commercially available transfection kits may support high efficiency of transfection, but they can be very expensive for large scale vector preparations. Calcium phosphate precipitation methods provide highly efficient transfection of 293T cells and thus provide a reliable and cost effective approach for lentiviral vector production. In this protocol, we produce lentiviral vectors by cotransfection of 293T cells with four plasmids based on the calcium phosphate precipitation principle, followed by purification and concentration with ultracentrifugation through a 20% sucrose cushion. The vector titers are determined by fluorescence- activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis or by real time qPCR. The production and titration of lentiviral vectors in this protocol can be finished with 9 days. We provide an example of transducing these vectors into murine neocortical cultures containing both neurons and astrocytes. We demonstrate that lentiviral vectors support high efficiency of transduction and cell type-specific gene expression in primary cultured cells from CNS.
Available from: Isabelle M Mansuy
- "The efficiency of pSico in primary neuronal and astroglial cultures further demonstrates its cellular tropism in these cell types. Such tropism is postulated to originate from the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G) envelope, found in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), used for the pSico lentivirus (Li et al., 2012). The U6 and CMV promoters used in the pSico construct show different cellular specificity between brain regions (Makinen et al., 2006), possibly due to variegation effects. "
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ABSTRACT: Gene knockout by homologous recombination is a popular method to study gene functions in the mouse in vivo. However, its lack of temporal control has limited the interpretation of knockout studies because the complete elimination of a gene product often alters developmental processes, and can induce severe malformations or lethality. Conditional gene knockdown has emerged as a compelling alternative to gene knockout, an approach well-established in vitro but that remains challenging in vivo, especially in the adult brain. Here, we report a method for conditional and cell-specific gene knockdown in the mouse brain in vivo that combines Cre-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) with classical and lentivirus-mediated transgenesis. The method is based on the inducible expression of a silencing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) introduced in mice by lentivirus-mediated transgenesis, and on its activation by excision of a floxed stop EGFP reporter with an inducible Cre recombinase expressed in astrocytes or in neurons. This dual system should be of broad utility for comparative studies of gene functions in these two cell types in vivo.
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 03/2014; 8:62. DOI:10.3389/fncel.2014.00062 · 4.29 Impact Factor
Available from: Chupei Zhang
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ABSTRACT: Lentiviral vectors (LVs) are a powerful means of delivering genetic material to many types of cells. Because of safety concerns associated with these HIV-1 derived vectors, producing large quantities of LVs is challenging. In this paper, we report a method for producing high titers of self-inactivating LVs. We retrovirally transduce the tet-off stable producer cell line GPR to generate a cell line, GPRS, which can express all the viral components, including a dendritic cell-specific glycoprotein, SVGmu. Then, we use concatemeric DNA transfection to transfect the LV transfer plasmid encoding a reporter gene GFP in combination with a selectable marker. Several of the resulting clones can produce LV at a titer 10-fold greater than what we achieve with transient transfection. Plus, these viruses efficiently transduce dendritic cells in vitro and generate a strong T cell immune response to our reporter antigen. This method may be a good option for producing strong LV-based vaccines for clinical studies of cancer or infectious diseases.
Journal of Visualized Experiments 06/2013; DOI:10.3791/50606 · 1.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: CREBZF, also known as Zhangfei or SMILE, is a member of the CREB/ATF protein family. CREBZF has mainly been considered as a basic region-leucine zipper transcription factor that functions in coordination with other transcription factors and plays a role in latent HSV-1 infection, apoptosis and the mammalian endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response. In this study, we constructed recombinant lentiviral vectors for CREBZF short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression and over-expression to improve understanding of the mechanisms regulating CREBZF. The CREBZF ORF sequence was cloned into the lentiviral shuttle plasmid pCD513B-1, and various shRNA oligonucleotides and one negative control (shN) were cloned into the pCD513B-U6 expression vector. The recombinant lentivirus was packaged and transduced into NIH 3T3 cells. CREBZF mRNA and protein expression were examined using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting, respectively. The over-expression vector and the most effective shRNA vector significantly affected the expression of CREBZF mRNA and protein. Both of the CREBZF recombinant lentiviral vectors were successfully constructed. The over-expression vector significantly increased the expression of exogenous CREBZF and inhibited the growth of NIH 3T3 cells compared to controls. The most effective shRNA lentiviral vector, pCD513B-U6-CREBZF-shRNA-3, was transformed, leading to significant knockdown of the CREBZF gene. We conclude that CREBZF the recombinant lentiviral vectors are promising tools for regulating the expression of CREBZF in NIH 3T3 cells.
Plasmid 09/2014; 76. DOI:10.1016/j.plasmid.2014.08.004 · 1.58 Impact Factor
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