The mammalian microRNA response to bacterial infections
ABSTRACT MicroRNAs are small RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate eukaryotic gene expression. In addition to their involvement in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes, including viral infections, microRNAs are increasingly implicated in the eukaryotic response to bacterial pathogens. Recent studies have characterized changes in host microRNA expression following infection with exclusively extracellular (Helicobacter pylori) or intracellular (Salmonella enterica) Gram-negative bacteria, as well as in the response to Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes) and other pathogens (Mycobacterium and Francisella species). In this review, we discuss the emerging roles of microRNAs in mammalian host signaling and defense against bacterial pathogens.
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ABSTRACT: The optimal coordination of the transcriptional response of host cells to infection is essential for establishing appropriate immunological outcomes. In this context, the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) - important epigenetic regulators of gene expression - in regulating mammalian immune systems is increasingly well recognised. However, the expression dynamics of miRNAs, and that of their isoforms, in response to infection remains largely unexplored. Here, we characterized the genome-wide miRNA transcriptional responses of human dendritic cells, over time, to various mycobacteria differing in their virulence as well as to other bacteria outside the genus Mycobacterium, using small RNA-sequencing. We detected the presence of a core temporal response to infection, shared across bacteria, comprising 49 miRNAs, highlighting a set of miRNAs that may play an essential role in the regulation of basic cellular responses to stress. Despite such broadly shared expression dynamics, we identified specific elements of variation in the miRNA response to infection across bacteria, including a virulence-dependent induction of the miR-132/212 family in response to mycobacterial infections. We also found that infection has a strong impact on both the relative abundance of the miRNA hairpin arms and the expression dynamics of miRNA isoforms. That we observed broadly consistent changes in relative arm expression and isomiR distribution across bacteria suggests that this additional, internal layer of variability in miRNA responses represents an additional source of subtle miRNA-mediated regulation upon infection. Collectively, this study increases our understanding of the dynamism and role of miRNAs in response to bacterial infection, revealing novel features of their internal variability and identifying candidate miRNAs that may contribute to differences in the pathogenicity of mycobacterial infections.PLoS Genetics 03/2015; 11(3):e1005064. DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1005064 · 8.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The recent explosion of RNA-seq studies has resulted in a newfound appreciation for the importance of riboregulatory RNAs in the posttranscriptional control of eukaryotic and prokaryotic genetic networks. The current review will explore the role of trans-riboregulatory RNAs in various adaptive responses of host and pathogen in the oral cavity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.Microbes and Infection 03/2015; 12. DOI:10.1016/j.micinf.2015.03.003 · 2.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the present study, we used an in vitro model to investigate the response of the oviduct with respect to inflammatory mediators and their regulatory microRNAs in case of bacterial infection and subsequent association with embryo survival. For this, we conducted two experiments. In the first experiment, cultured primary bovine oviductal cells (BOEC) were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 24h and the temporal expression pattern of inflammatory mediators and their regulatory microRNAs were measured at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48h after LPS treatment. Intriguingly, the temporal patterns of all miRNAs except miR-21 were significantly up-regulated at 6h after LPS treatment. Whereas, we observed significant overexpression of pro-inflammatory mediators as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin-1 beta (IL1β) after LPS challenge for 24h. On the other hand, the expression level of essential elements like oviductal glycoprotein 1 (OVGP1) and insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) was significantly decreased in challenged groups compared with control. Moreover, miR-155, miR-146a, miR-223, miR-21, miR-16 and miR-215 have shown a clear suppression in challenged group after LPS treatment. In the 2nd experiment there were four groups of blastocysts produced, namely embryo+LPS free media, embryo+LPS, BOEC+embryo and BOEC+embryo+LPS. The suboptimal oviduct environment due to LPS challenge is found to have a significant influence on the expression of inflammatory response genes (TNFα and CSF1), stress response genes (SOD and CAT), mitochondrial activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and apoptotic level either in cultured or co-cultured blastocysts. Collectively, LPS challenge led to aberrant changes in oviductal transcriptome profile, which could lead to a suboptimal environment for embryo development.PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0119388. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0119388 · 3.53 Impact Factor