The mammalian microRNA response to bacterial infections.
ABSTRACT MicroRNAs are small RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate eukaryotic gene expression. In addition to their involvement in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes, including viral infections, microRNAs are increasingly implicated in the eukaryotic response to bacterial pathogens. Recent studies have characterized changes in host microRNA expression following infection with exclusively extracellular (Helicobacter pylori) or intracellular (Salmonella enterica) Gram-negative bacteria, as well as in the response to Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes) and other pathogens (Mycobacterium and Francisella species). In this review, we discuss the emerging roles of microRNAs in mammalian host signaling and defense against bacterial pathogens.
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ABSTRACT: It is not currently possible to predict the probability of whether a woman with a chlamydial genital infection will develop pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). To determine if specific biomarkers may be associated with distinct chlamydial pathotypes, we utilized two Chlamydia muridarum variants (C. muridarum Var001 [CmVar001] and CmVar004) that differ in their abilities to elicit upper genital tract pathology in a mouse model. CmVar004 has a lower growth rate in vitro and induces pathology in only 20% of C57BL/6 mouse oviducts versus 83.3% of oviducts in CmVar001-infected mice. To determine if chemokine and cytokine production within 24 h of infection is associated with the outcome of pathology, levels of 15 chemokines and cytokines were measured. CmVar004 infection induced significantly lower levels of CXCL1, CXCL2, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and CCL2 in comparison to CmVar001 infection with similar rRNA (rs16) levels for Chlamydiae. A combination of microRNA (miRNA) sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of 134 inflammation-related miRNAs was performed 24 h postinfection to determine if the chemokine/cytokine responses would also be reflected in miRNA expression profiles. Interestingly, 12 miRNAs (miR-135a-5p, miR298-5p, miR142-3p, miR223-3p, miR299a-3p, miR147-3p, miR105, miR325-3p, miR132-3p, miR142-5p, miR155-5p, and miR-410-3p) were overexpressed during CmVar004 infection compared to CmVar001 infection, inversely correlating with the respective chemokine/cytokine responses. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that early biomarkers elicited in the host can differentiate between two pathological variants of chlamydiae and be predictive of upper tract disease.mBio 01/2014; 5(3). · 6.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: One of the hallmarks of malignancy is the polarization of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) from a pro-immune (M1-like) phenotype to an immune-suppressive (M2-like) phenotype. However, the molecular basis of the process is still unclear. MicroRNA (miRNA) comprises a group of small, non-coding RNAs that are broadly expressed by a variety of organisms and are involved in cell behaviors such as suppression or promotion of tumorigenesis. Here, we demonstrate that miR-19a-3p, broadly conserved among vertebrates, was downregulated in RAW264.7 macrophage cells of the M2 phenotype in conditoned medium of 4T1 mouse breast tumor cells. This downregulation correlated with an increased expression of the Fra-1 gene, which was reported to act as a pro-oncogene by supporting the invasion and progression of breast tumors. We found significant upregulation of miR-19a-3p in RAW264.7 macrophages after transfection with a miR-19a-3p mimic that resulted in a significant suppression of the expression of this gene. In addition, we could measure the activity of binding between miR-19a-3p and Fra-1 with a psiCHECK luciferase reporter system. Further, transfection of RAW264.7 macrophage cells with the miR-19a-3p mimic decreased the expression of the Fra-1 downstream genes VEGF, STAT3 and pSTAT3. Most importantly, the capacity of 4T1 breast tumor cells to migrate and invade was impaired in vivo by the intratumoral injection of miR-19a-3p. Taken together, these findings indicate that miR-19a-3p is capable of downregulating the M2 phenotype in M2 macrophages and that the low expression of this miRNA has an important role in the upregulation of Fra-1 expression and induction of M2 macrophage polarization.Oncogene advance online publication, 8 July 2013; doi:10.1038/onc.2013.258.Oncogene 07/2013; · 8.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: As mirrored by several topics throughout history, the causal link between infectious diseases and cancer was initially viewed with disbelief and subsequently forgotten, only to be rediscovered decades later, when it started flourishing into a vibrant multidisciplinary field . Just a few years ago, it was estimated that over 20% of all cancers are causally linked to infectious diseases, most frequently caused by bacteria, viruses, and parasites .International Journal of Clinical Practice 12/2013; 67(12):1220-1224. · 2.43 Impact Factor