Exposure to Environmental Endocrine Disruptors and Child Development

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.
JAMA Pediatrics (Impact Factor: 4.25). 06/2012; 166(6):E1-7. DOI: 10.1001/archpediatrics.2012.241
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Exposure to exogenous chemicals can affect endocrine function at multiple sites and through numerous specific modes of action, which may have far-reaching effects on human health and development. Widespread human exposure to known or suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has been documented in the United States and worldwide, as have trends for increased rates of endocrine-related diseases and disorders among children. While human epidemiology studies of exposure to EDCs and children's health remain extremely limited, a growing body of evidence shows that exposure to a number of chemicals commonly found in consumer goods, personal care products, food, drinking water, and other sources may adversely affect child development through altered endocrine function. This narrative review provides a brief introduction to several common EDCs (with a specific focus on persistent organic pollutants, phthalates, bisphenol A, and contemporary-use pesticides, which represent only a small number of all known or suspected EDCs), an overview of the state of the human evidence for adverse effects of EDCs on child development (fetal growth, early reproductive tract development, pubertal development, neurodevelopment, and obesity), guidance for health care providers based on current knowledge, and recommendations for future research.

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    • "Alterations in thyroid and steroid hormone function and activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors might occur due to exposure to such endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) influencing the adipocyte differentiation a'nd energy storage (Tang-Péronard et al., 2011; Thayer et al., 2012). Additionally, the presence of such synthetic chemicals in humans has been associated with elevated triglycerides and cholesterol, impaired fasting glucose and diabetes (Meeker, 2012; Tang-Péronard et al., 2011), factors that are all related to the body's natural weight control mechanisms potentially leading to obesity. Exposure to EDCs, such as BPA and phthalates, has already been linked to obesity in animal studies (Miyawaki et al., 2007; R.R. Newbold et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Bisphenol A (BPA) and triclosan (TCS) were determined in urine of Belgian overweight and obese (n = 151) and lean (n = 43) individuals. After the first urine collection (0 M), obese patients started a diet program or have undergone bariatric surgery. Hereafter, three additional urine samples from obese patients were collected after 3 (3M), 6 (6M) and 12 (12 M) months. Both compounds were detected in N99% of the samples. BPA had median concentrations of 1.7 and 1.2 ng/mL in obese and lean groups, respectively, while TCS had median concentrations of 1.5 and 0.9 ng/mL in the obese and lean groups, respectively. The obese group had higher urinary concentrations (ng/mL) of BPA (p b 0.5), while no significant differences were found for TCS between the obese and lean groups. No time trends between the different collection moments were observed. The BPA concentrations in the obese group were negatively associated with age, while no gender difference or relationship with body mass index was observed. For TCS, no relationships with gender, BMI, or age were found. The temporal variability of BPA and TCS was assessed with calculation of the intra class correlation coefficient, Spearman rank correlation coefficients, and surrogate category analysis. We observed evidence that single spot urine samples might be predictive of exposure over a longer period of time. Dietary intakes of BPA and TCS did not differ significantly among the time points considered after obese individuals started losing weight (6 and 12 months). Multiple linear regression analyses after adjusting for age and weight loss revealed negative associations between urinary TCS and serumFT4 in the 0M and 3M female obese individuals and positive associations between urinary BPA and serum TSH in the lean group.
    Environment international 01/2015; 76(March 2015):98-105. DOI:10.1016/j.envint.2014.12.003 · 5.66 Impact Factor
    • "With the exponential growth of the chemical industry the use of synthetic chemicals become massive and therefore humans are continuously exposed to such substances [1] particularly in the indoor environment, where people tend to spend the vast majority of their life time. Hence, daily human exposure to these harmful chemicals has become, in the last decades, one of the major concerns to the public as well as the scientific community. "
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    ABSTRACT: Modern people spend a considerable time of their life indoors, whether at home, at the workplace or at school, or inside vehicles and public transportation, therefore exposure to a variety of contaminants present indoors is constant and profuse. These contaminants released from household products tend to accumulate and concentrate in dust which is thus considered as one of the main human exposure pathways to several chemicals either by inhalation or ingestion. Within this wide range of contaminants polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecanes are included. These two brominated flame retardants have been applied in a vast range of materials with the aim to inhibit or delay the combustion and prevent the fire progression thus increasing the available time for people to escape. The extensive usage granted them a ubiquitous presence in the indoor environment and also in humans. Due to their toxicity and their potential to bioaccumulate these flame retardants have been restricted or banned. However, their persistency in the environment and the increasing evidences of deleterious effects towards humans and wildlife renders the study of these contaminants a matter of great importance. In this review we gathered available information on the levels of PBDEs and HBCDs in indoor dust samples collected from different places and different regions around the world and discuss human exposure to these contaminants through dust.
    Current Organic Chemistry 10/2014; 18(17):2218 - 2230. DOI:10.2174/1385272819666140804231237 · 2.54 Impact Factor
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    • "Due to its high lipophilic property, BPA can be transferred all through the placenta and reach the fetus [33]. Animal studies showed that pre-and perinatal exposure to this chemical causes problems to the newborn such as low birth weight and/or predisposition to adult degenerative diseases, that is, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, obesity, and allergies [34] [35] [36]. BPA acts also in human placenta at concentrations as low as nM [33]. "
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    ABSTRACT: A proper fetomaternal immune-endocrine cross-talk in pregnancy is fundamental for reproductive success. This might be unbalanced by exposure to environmental chemicals, such as bisphenol A (BPA). As fetoplacental contamination with BPA originates from the maternal compartment, this study investigated the role of the endometrium in BPA effects on the placenta. To this end, in vitro decidualized stromal cells were exposed to BPA 1 nM, and their conditioned medium (diluted 1 : 2) was used on chorionic villous explants from human placenta. Parallel cultures of placental explants were directly exposed to 0.5 nM BPA while, control cultures were exposed to the vehicle (EtOH 0.1%). After 24-48 h, culture medium from BPA-treated and control cultures was assayed for concentration of hormone human Chorionic Gonadotropin ( β -hCG) and cytokine Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF). The results showed that direct exposure to BPA stimulated the release of both MIF and β -hCG. These effects were abolished/diminished in placental cultures exposed to endometrial cell-conditioned medium. GM-MS analysis revealed that endometrial cells retain BPA, thus reducing the availability of this chemical for the placenta. The data obtained highlight the importance of in vitro models including the maternal component in reproducing the effects of environmental chemicals on human fetus/placenta.
    Mediators of Inflammation 03/2014; 2014:635364. DOI:10.1155/2014/635364 · 3.24 Impact Factor
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