Exposure to Environmental Endocrine Disruptors and Child Development

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.
JAMA Pediatrics (Impact Factor: 4.25). 06/2012; 166(6):E1-7. DOI: 10.1001/archpediatrics.2012.241
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Exposure to exogenous chemicals can affect endocrine function at multiple sites and through numerous specific modes of action, which may have far-reaching effects on human health and development. Widespread human exposure to known or suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has been documented in the United States and worldwide, as have trends for increased rates of endocrine-related diseases and disorders among children. While human epidemiology studies of exposure to EDCs and children's health remain extremely limited, a growing body of evidence shows that exposure to a number of chemicals commonly found in consumer goods, personal care products, food, drinking water, and other sources may adversely affect child development through altered endocrine function. This narrative review provides a brief introduction to several common EDCs (with a specific focus on persistent organic pollutants, phthalates, bisphenol A, and contemporary-use pesticides, which represent only a small number of all known or suspected EDCs), an overview of the state of the human evidence for adverse effects of EDCs on child development (fetal growth, early reproductive tract development, pubertal development, neurodevelopment, and obesity), guidance for health care providers based on current knowledge, and recommendations for future research.

1 Follower
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bisphenol A (BPA) and triclosan (TCS) were determined in urine of Belgian overweight and obese (n = 151) and lean (n = 43) individuals. After the first urine collection (0 M), obese patients started a diet program or have undergone bariatric surgery. Hereafter, three additional urine samples from obese patients were collected after 3 (3M), 6 (6M) and 12 (12 M) months. Both compounds were detected in N99% of the samples. BPA had median concentrations of 1.7 and 1.2 ng/mL in obese and lean groups, respectively, while TCS had median concentrations of 1.5 and 0.9 ng/mL in the obese and lean groups, respectively. The obese group had higher urinary concentrations (ng/mL) of BPA (p b 0.5), while no significant differences were found for TCS between the obese and lean groups. No time trends between the different collection moments were observed. The BPA concentrations in the obese group were negatively associated with age, while no gender difference or relationship with body mass index was observed. For TCS, no relationships with gender, BMI, or age were found. The temporal variability of BPA and TCS was assessed with calculation of the intra class correlation coefficient, Spearman rank correlation coefficients, and surrogate category analysis. We observed evidence that single spot urine samples might be predictive of exposure over a longer period of time. Dietary intakes of BPA and TCS did not differ significantly among the time points considered after obese individuals started losing weight (6 and 12 months). Multiple linear regression analyses after adjusting for age and weight loss revealed negative associations between urinary TCS and serumFT4 in the 0M and 3M female obese individuals and positive associations between urinary BPA and serum TSH in the lean group.
    Environment international 01/2015; 76(March 2015):98-105. DOI:10.1016/j.envint.2014.12.003 · 5.66 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are a diverse group of "chemicals of emerging concern" which have attracted much interest from the research community since the 1990s. Today there is still no definitive risk assessment tool for EDCs. While some decision making organizations have attempted to design methodology guidelines to evaluate the potential risk from this broadly defined group of constituents, risk assessors still face many uncertainties and unknowns. Until a risk assessment paradigm is designed specifically for EDCs and is vetted by the field, traditional risk assessment tools may be used with caution to evaluate EDCs. In doing so, each issue of contention should be addressed with transparency in order to leverage available information and technology without sacrificing integrity or accuracy. The challenges that EDCs pose to traditional risk assessment are described in this article to assist in this process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ecotoxicology studies the effects of anthropogenic chemicals on ecosystems at different levels of biological organization, from the molecular and cellular level to entire ecosystems. One of the core missions of ecotoxicology is to understand the mechanisms by which contaminants perturb normal biological performance (their mode of action), in order to develop appropriate interventions to prevent adverse outcomes resulting from environmental contaminants (Connon et al., 2012). During the last century, the abundance of synthetic chemicals developed for consumer products, agrochemicals and commercial industrial processes have raised significant concerns with respect to health effects (Zawatski and Lee, 2013). The use of agricultural pesticides is increasing day by day to control pests and weeds in crop production. Among these pesticides, more than 65% of total amount are herbicides. Unfortunately, their exposure is usually not limited to the location where they are applied, and the pesticides reach aquatic environmental locations and compartments through various physical transport processes, such as spray drift, leaching, runoff or accidental spill, and affect the organisms living in the locations. Besides, they can be incorporated by grass, vegetables, animals and water and affect another organisms that living far away. The ecotoxicological impact of pesticides has been usually measured by their effects on non-target organisms (Mohammad and Ito, 2011). At the other hand, others anthropomorphic activities generate heavy metals that may enter the human body through inhalation of dust, consumption of contaminated drinking water, direct ingestion of soil and consumption of food plants grown in metal-contaminated soil. Vegetables, for example, constitute an important part of the human diet since they contain carbohydrates, proteins, as well as vitamins, minerals, and trace elements. Serious systemic health problems can develop as a result of excessive accumulation of dietary heavy metals such as Cd, Cr, and Pb in the human body (Chary et al., 2008). This review illustrates the effects of exposure to these contaminants through food on the reproductive system and environmental concentration of these pollutants reaches levels that pose a risk to human. We are also looking for contributing to the risk assessment of these environmental pollutants and a safety exposure.
    Toxic Effects of Chemicals in Food, Chemical and Consumer Product Safety, 1 edited by Grasiela D. de C. Severi-Aguiar and Armindo Antonio Alves, 01/2014: chapter Pesticides and heavy metals ingestion through food consumption can disrupt reproductive system: pages 89-97; Research Signpost., ISBN: 978-81-308-0551-1


Available from