Endotracheal intubation versus supraglottic airway insertion in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
ABSTRACT To simplify airway management and minimize cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) chest compression interruptions, some emergency medical services (EMS) practitioners utilize supraglottic airway (SGA) devices instead of endotracheal intubation (ETI) as the primary airway adjunct in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). We compared the outcomes of patients receiving ETI with those receiving SGA following OHCA.
We performed a secondary analysis of data from the multicenter Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium (ROC) PRIMED trial. We studied adult non-traumatic OHCA receiving successful SGA insertion (King Laryngeal Tube, Combitube, and Laryngeal Mask Airway) or successful ETI. The primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge with satisfactory functional status (Modified Rankin Scale ≤3). Secondary outcomes included return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), 24-h survival, major airway or pulmonary complications (pulmonary edema, internal thoracic or abdominal injuries, acute lung injury, sepsis, and pneumonia). Using multivariable logistic regression, we studied the association between out-of-hospital airway management method (ETI vs. SGA) and OHCA outcomes, adjusting for confounders.
Of 10,455 adult OHCA, 8487 (81.2%) received ETI and 1968 (18.8%) received SGA. Survival to hospital discharge with satisfactory functional status was: ETI 4.7%, SGA 3.9%. Compared with successful SGA, successful ETI was associated with increased survival to hospital discharge (adjusted OR 1.40; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.89), ROSC (adjusted OR 1.78; 95% CI: 1.54, 2.04) and 24-h survival (adjusted OR 1.74; 95% CI: 1.49, 2.04). ETI was not associated with secondary airway or pulmonary complications (adjusted OR 0.84; 95% CI: 0.61, 1.16).
In this secondary analysis of data from the multicenter ROC PRIMED trial, ETI was associated with improved outcomes over SGA insertion after OHCA.
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ABSTRACT: Aim: The best method of initial airway management during resuscitation for out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is unknown. The airway management techniques used currently by UK paramedics during resuscitation for OHCA are not well documented. This study describes the airway management techniques used in the usual practice arm of the REVIVE-Airways feasibility study, and documents the pathway of interventions to secure and sustain ventilation during OHCA. Method: Data were collected from OHCAs attended by paramedics participating in the REVIVE-Airways trial between March 2012 and February 2013. Patients were included if they were enrolled in the usual practice arm of the study, fulfilled the main study eligibility criteria and did not receive either of the intervention supraglottic airway devices during the resuscitation attempt. Results: Data from 196 attempted resuscitations were included in the analysis. The initial approach to airway management was bag-mask for 108 (55%), a supraglottic airway device (SAD) for 39 (20%) and tracheal intubation for 49 (25%). Paramedics made further airway interventions in 64% of resuscitations. When intubation was the initial approach, there was no further intervention in 76% of cases; this compares to 16% and 44% with bag-mask and SAD respectively. The most common reason cited by paramedics for changing from bag-mask was to carry out advanced life support, followed by regurgitation and inadequate ventilation. Inadequate ventilation was the commonest reason cited for removing a SAD. Conclusion: Paramedics use a range of techniques to manage the airway during OHCA, and as the resuscitation evolves. It is therefore desirable to ensure that a range of techniques and equipment, supported by effective training, are available to paramedics who attend OHCA. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.Resuscitation 09/2014; 85(12). DOI:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2014.09.008 · 3.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This article is one of ten reviews selected from the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine 2015 and co-published as a series in Critical Care. Other articles in the series can be found online at http://ccforum.com/series/annualupdate2015 . Further information about the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine is available from http://www.springer.com/series/8901 .Critical care (London, England) 12/2015; 19(1):808. DOI:10.1186/s13054-015-0808-x
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ABSTRACT: Endotracheal intubation (ETI) is currently considered superior to supraglottic airway devices (SGA) for survival and other outcomes among adults with non-traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). We aimed to determine if the research supports this conclusion by conducting a systematic review. We searched the MEDLINE, Scopus and CINAHL databases for studies published between January 1, 1980, and 30 April 30, 2013, which compared pre-hospital use of ETI with SGA for outcomes of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC); survival to hospital admission; survival to hospital discharge; and favorable neurological or functional status. We selected studies using pre-specified criteria. Included studies were independently screened for quality using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. We did not pool results because of study variability. Study outcomes were extracted and results presented as summed odds ratios with 95% CI. We identified five eligible studies: one quasi-randomized controlled trial and four cohort studies, involving 303,348 patients in total. Only three of the five studies reported a higher proportion of ROSC with ETI versus SGA with no difference reported in the remaining two. None found significant differences between ETI and SGA for survival to hospital admission or discharge. One study reported better functional status at discharge for ETI versus SGA. Two studies reported no significant difference for favorable neurological status between ETI and SGA. Current evidence does not conclusively support the superiority of ETI over SGA for multiple outcomes among adults with OHCA.The western journal of emergency medicine 11/2014; 15(7):749-757. DOI:10.5811/westjem.2014.9.20291