NSAIDs: eNdocannabinoid stimulating anti-inflammatory drugs?
ABSTRACT Read any pharmacology textbook and the message is clear: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) act by inhibiting the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX) and thereby the production of prostaglandins. However, evidence is accumulating that NSAIDs involve the endocannabinoid system in their actions, and that such effects may pave the way towards the design of new analgesics that are not plagued with the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular adverse actions that are associated with this class of drugs. In this Opinion article, our current understanding of the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the actions of NSAIDs is described, and the ways in which this can lead to novel drug development is discussed.
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ABSTRACT: Pain and inflammation are major therapeutic areas for drug discovery. Current drugs for these pathologies have limited efficacy, however, and often cause a number of unwanted side effects. In the present study, we identify the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug carprofen as a multitarget-directed ligand that simultaneously inhibits cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), COX-2, and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Additionally, we synthesized and tested several derivatives of carprofen, sharing this multitarget activity. This may result in improved analgesic efficacy and reduced side effects (Naidu et al. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 2009, 329, 48−56; Fowler, C. J.; et al. J. Enzyme Inhib. Med. Chem. 2012, in press; Sasso et al. Pharmacol. Res. 2012, 65, 553). The new compounds are among the most potent multitarget FAAH/COX inhibitors reported so far in the literature and thus may represent promising starting points for the discovery of new analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs.Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 09/2012; 55(20). DOI:10.1021/jm3011146 · 5.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the present study, identification of chiral 1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ones as potent and selective FAAH inhibitors has been described. The separated enantiomers showed clear differences in the potency and selectivity towards both FAAH and MAGL. Additionally, the importance of the chirality on the inhibitory activity and selectivity was proven by the simplification approach by removing a methyl group at the 3-position of 1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-one ring. The most potent compound of the series, S-enantiomer of 3-(1-(4-isobutylphenyl)ethyl)-5-methoxy-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2(3H)-one (JZP-327A, 51), inhibited human recombinant FAAH (hrFAAH) in low nanomolar range (IC50 = 11 nM) whereas its corresponding R-enantiomer 52 showed only moderate inhibition towards hrFAAH (IC50 = 0.24 M). In contrast to hrFAAH, R-enantiomer 52 was more potent in inhibiting the activity of hrMAGL compared to S-enantiomer 51 (IC50 = 4.0 M and 16% inhibition at 10 M, respectively). The FAAH selectivity of the compound 51 over the supposed main off-targets, MAGL and COX, was found to be > 900 fold. In addition, activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) indicated high selectivity over other serine hydrolases. Finally, the selected S-enantiomers 51, 53 and 55 were shown to be tight binding, slowly reversible inhibitors of the hrFAAH.Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 10/2013; 56(21):8484-8496. DOI:10.1021/jm400923s · 5.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The endocannabinoid system consists of cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors, of endogenous agonists for these receptors known as 'endocannabinoids', and of processes responsible for endocannabinoid biosynthesis, cellular uptake and metabolism. There is strong evidence first, that this system up-regulates in certain disorders as indicated by an increased release of endocannabinoids onto their receptors and/or by increases in the expression levels or coupling efficiency of these receptors, and second, that this up-regulation often appears to reduce or abolish unwanted effects of these disorders or to slow their progression. This discovery has raised the possibility of developing a medicine that enhances up-regulation of the endocannabinoid system associated with these disorders by inhibiting the cellular uptake or intracellular metabolism of an endocannabinoid following its 'autoprotective' endogenous release. For inhibition of endocannabinoid metabolism, research has focused particularly on two highly investigated endocannabinoids, anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, and hence on inhibitors of the main anandamide-metabolising enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), and of the main 2-arachidonoyl glycerol-metabolising enzyme, monoacylglycerol (MAG) lipase. The resulting data have provided strong preclinical evidence that selective FAAH and MAG lipase inhibitors would ameliorate the unwanted effects of several disorders, when administered alone or with a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, and that the benefit-to-risk ratio of a FAAH inhibitor would exceed that of a MAG lipase inhibitor or dual inhibitor of FAAH and MAG lipase. Promising preclinical data have also been obtained with inhibitors of endocannabinoid cellular uptake. There is now an urgent need for clinical research with these enzyme and uptake inhibitors.Proceedings of The Nutrition Society 10/2013; 73(01):1-10. DOI:10.1017/S0029665113003649 · 4.94 Impact Factor