Effect of the Medicare Part D coverage gap on medication use among patients with hypertension and hyperlipidemia.
ABSTRACT Prior studies of the Medicare Part D coverage gap are limited in generalizability and scope.
To determine the effect of the coverage gap on drugs used for asymptomatic (antihypertensive and lipid-lowering drugs) and symptomatic (pain relievers, acid suppressants, and antidepressants) conditions in elderly patients with hypertension and hyperlipidemia.
Quasi-experimental study using pre-post design and contemporaneous control group.
Medicare claims files from 2005 and 2006 for 5% random sample of Medicare beneficiaries.
Part D plan enrollees with hypertension or hyperlipidemia aged 65 years or older who had no coverage, generic-only coverage, or both brand-name and generic coverage during the gap in 2006. Patients who were fully eligible for the low-income subsidy served as the control group.
Monthly 30-day supply prescriptions available, medication adherence, and continuous medication gaps of 30 days or more for antihypertensive or lipid-lowering drugs; monthly 30-day supply prescriptions available for pain relievers, acid suppressants, or antidepressants before and after coverage gap entry.
Patients with no gap coverage had a decrease in monthly antihypertensive and lipid-lowering drug prescriptions during the coverage gap. Nonadherence also increased in this group (antihypertensives: odds ratio [OR], 1.60 [95% CI, 1.50 to 1.71]; lipid-lowering drugs: OR, 1.59 [CI, 1.50 to 1.68]). The proportion of patients with no gap coverage who had continuous medication gaps in lipid-lowering medication use and antihypertensive use increased by an absolute 7.3% (OR, 1.38 [CI, 1.29 to 1.46]) and 3.2% (OR, 1.35 [CI, 1.25 to 1.45]), respectively, because of the coverage gap. Decreases in use were smaller for pain relievers and antidepressants and larger for acid suppressants in patients with no gap coverage. Patients with generic-only coverage had decreased use of cardiovascular medications but no change in use of drugs for symptomatic conditions. No measures changed in the brand-name and generic coverage groups. Results of sensitivity analyses were consistent with the main findings.
Because this study was nonrandomized, unobserved differences may still exist between study groups.
The Part D coverage gap was associated with decreased use of medications for hypertension and hyperlipidemia in patients with no gap coverage and generic-only gap coverage. The proposed phasing out of the gap by 2020 will benefit such patients; however, use of low-value medications may also increase.
Penn-Pfizer Alliance and American Heart Association.
SourceAvailable from: Liliana E Pezzin[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The high expense of newer, more effective adjuvant endocrine therapy agents (aromatase inhibitors [AIs]) for postmenopausal breast cancer contributes to socioeconomic disparities in breast cancer outcomes. This study compares endocrine therapy costs for breast cancer patients during the first five years of Medicare Part D implementation, and when generic alternatives became available. The out of pocket patient costs for AIs and tamoxifen under Medicare Part D drug plans were determined for 2006-2011 from the CMS Website for the 50 US states and District of Columbia. Between 2006 and 2010, the mean annual patient drug cost under Medicare Part D in the median state rose 19% for tamoxifen, 113% for anastrozole, 89% for exemestane, and 129% for letrozole, resulting in median annual out of pocket costs in 2010 of $701, $3050, $2804, and $3664 respectively. However, the 2011 availability of generic AI preparations led to median annual costs in 2011 of $804, $872, $1837, and $2217 respectively. Not included in the reported patient costs, the mean monthly drug premiums in the median state increased 58% in 2011 compared to 2007. The more effective AI agents became considerably more expensive during the first several years of the Medicare Part D program. Cost decreased with the introduction of generic agents, an intervention that was independent of the Part D program. It is unlikely that the Part D program ameliorated existing socioeconomic disparities in survival among breast cancer patients, but the availability of generic agents may do so.SpringerPlus 01/2015; 4:54. DOI:10.1186/s40064-015-0827-8
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ABSTRACT: Prescription drugs are used in people with hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease to manage their illness. Patient cost sharing strategies such as copayments and deductibles are often employed to lower expenditures for prescription drug insurance plans, but the impact on health outcomes in these patients is unclear. To determine the association between drug insurance and patient cost sharing strategies on medication adherence, clinical and economic outcomes in those with chronic diseases (defined herein as diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, coronary artery disease, and cerebrovascular disease). Studies were included if they examined various cost sharing strategies including copayments, coinsurance, fixed copayments, deductibles and maximum out-of-pocket expenditures. Value-based insurance design and reference based pricing studies were excluded. Two reviewers independently identified original intervention studies (randomized controlled trials, interrupted time series, and controlled before-after designs). MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and relevant reference lists were searched until March 2013. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion, quality, and extracted data. Eleven studies, assessing the impact of seven policy changes, were included: 2 separate reports of one randomized controlled trial, 4 interrupted time series, and 5 controlled before-after studies. Outcomes included medication adherence, clinical events (myocardial infarction, stroke, death), quality of life, healthcare utilization, or cost. The heterogeneity among the studies precluded meta-analysis. Few studies reported the impact of cost sharing strategies on mortality, clinical and economic outcomes. The association between patient copayments and medication adherence varied across studies, ranging from no difference to significantly lower adherence, depending on the amount of the copayment. Lowering cost sharing in patients with chronic diseases may improve adherence, but the impact on clinical and economic outcomes is uncertain.PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e89168. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0089168 · 3.53 Impact Factor