Article

Cocoa modulatory effect on rat faecal microbiota and colonic crosstalk

Departament de Fisiologia, Facultat de Farmàcia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics (Impact Factor: 3.04). 06/2012; 527(2):105-12. DOI: 10.1016/j.abb.2012.05.015
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Previous studies have reported the effect of a cocoa-enriched diet on the intestinal immune system in rats. Cocoa contains fibre and polyphenols that can directly influence the intestinal ecosystem and its relationship with the immune system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a cocoa-enriched diet on gut microbiota, toll-like receptor (TLR) expression and immunoglobulin (Ig) A (IgA) intestinal secretion in rats. Four-week-old Wistar rats were fed a standard or cocoa diet for 6weeks. Faecal samples were collected before the beginning of the diet and at the end of the study. After the nutritional intervention, colon samples were obtained to quantify TLR and IgA gene expression and IgA protein. Microbiota composition was characterized by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) coupled to flow cytometry (FCM) analysis using specific probes directed to 16S rRNA of the main bacteria genus present in rat intestine. The cocoa dietary intervention resulted in a differential TLR pattern and a decrease in the intestinal IgA secretion and IgA-coating bacteria. Moreover there was a significant decrease in the proportion of Bacteroides, Clostridium and Staphylococcus genera in the faeces of cocoa-fed animals. In conclusion, cocoa intake affects the growth of certain species of gut microbiota in rats and is associated with changes in the TLR pattern which could be responsible for the changes observed in the intestinal immune system.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
193 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Our group has recently shown the existence of a gut microbial dysbiosis in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), supporting previous evidence involving intestinal bacteria in the initiation and amplification of autoimmune diseases. While several studies have addressed the use of dietary fibres to modify intestinal microbiota, information about other correlated components, such as polyphenols, is scarce. The aim of this work was to identify dietary components able to influence this altered microbiota in 20 SLE women and 20 age-matched controls. Food intake was recorded by means of a food frequency questionnaire. The intake of fibres was calculated from Marlett tables, and Phenol-Explorer was used for polyphenol consumption. Results showed positive associations between flavone intake and Blautia, flavanones and Lactobacillus, and dihydrochalcones and Bifidobacterium in the SLE group. Regarding the controls, dihydroflavonols were directly associated with Faecalibacterium, whereas flavonol intake was inversely associated with Bifidobacterium. From the food sources of these polyphenols related to microbiota, orange intake was directly associated with Lactobacillus and apple with Bifidobacterium in SLE, whilst red wine was the best contributor to Faecalibacterium variation. The association between common foods and particular microbial genera, reported to be decreased in SLE, could be of great importance for these patients.
    Nutrients 02/2015; 7(2):1301-17. DOI:10.3390/nu7021301 · 3.15 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dietary polyphenols present in a broad range of plant foods have been related to beneficial health effects. This review aims to update the current information about the modulation of the gut microbiota by dietary phenolic compounds, from a perspective based on the experimental approaches used. After referring to general aspects of gut microbiota and dietary polyphenols, studies related to this topic are presented according to their experimental design: batch culture fermentations, gastrointestinal simulators, animal model studies, and human intervention studies. In general, studies evidence that dietary polyphenols may contribute to the maintenance of intestinal health by preserving the gut microbial balance through the stimulation of the growth of beneficial bacteria (i.e., lactobacilli and bifidobacteria) and the inhibition of pathogenic bacteria, exerting prebiotic-like effects. Combination of in vitro and in vivo models could help to understand the underlying mechanisms in the polyphenols-microbiota-host triangle and elucidate the implications of polyphenols on human health. From a technological point of view, supplementation with rich-polyphenolic stuffs (phenolic extracts, phenolic-enriched fractions, etc.) could be an effective option to improve health benefits of functional foods such as the case of dairy fermented foods.
    01/2015; 2015:1-15. DOI:10.1155/2015/850902
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dietary polyphenols, including red wine phenolic compounds, are extensively metabolized during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract; and their biological effects at the gut level (i.e., anti-inflammatory activity, microbiota modulation, interaction with cells, among others) seem to be due more to their microbial-derived metabolites rather than to the original forms found in food. In an effort to improve our understanding of the biological effects that phenolic compounds exert at the gut level, this paper summarizes the changes observed in the human fecal metabolome after an intervention study consisting of a daily consumption of 250 mL of wine during four weeks by healthy volunteers (n = 33). It assembles data from two analytical approaches: (1) UPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of phenolic metabolites in fecal solutions (targeted analysis); and (2) UHPLC-TOF MS analysis of the fecal solutions (non-targeted analysis). Both approaches revealed statistically-significant changes in the concentration of several metabolites as a consequence of the wine intake. Similarity and complementarity between targeted and non-targeted approaches in the analysis of the fecal metabolome are discussed. Both strategies allowed the definition of a complex metabolic profile derived from wine intake. Likewise, the identification of endogenous markers could lead to new hypotheses to unravel the relationship between moderate wine consumption and the metabolic functionality of gut microbiota.
    12/2014; 4(4):1101-18. DOI:10.3390/metabo4041101

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
34 Downloads
Available from
Jun 2, 2014