The so-called bias blind spot arises when people report that thinking biases are more prevalent in others than in themselves. Bias turns out to be relatively easy to recognize in the behaviors of others, but often difficult to detect in one's own judgments. Most previous research on the bias blind spot has focused on bias in the social domain. In 2 studies, we found replicable bias blind spots with respect to many of the classic cognitive biases studied in the heuristics and biases literature (e.g., Tversky & Kahneman, 1974). Further, we found that none of these bias blind spots were attenuated by measures of cognitive sophistication such as cognitive ability or thinking dispositions related to bias. If anything, a larger bias blind spot was associated with higher cognitive ability. Additional analyses indicated that being free of the bias blind spot does not help a person avoid the actual classic cognitive biases. We discuss these findings in terms of a generic dual-process theory of cognition.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Once a matter of safety and survival, loyalty is a moral principle deeply rooted in human
evolution—one that may wield a profound influence on ethical judgment and conceptions of just
punishment. Consumers live in a complex Web of loyalty obligations woven through affiliations with
marketers, fellow consumers, and other groups. This article examines how such affiliations shape
consumers’ judgments of ethically controversial marketing conduct and preferences for punishment.
In general, the more unethical an act is judged to be, the more severe the preferred punishment.
However, the findings show that although consumers judge a controversial marketing act as more
unethical when an in-group member targets the consumer’s in-group (vs. out-group), a more lenient
punishment is preferred (Study 1). Additionally, the extent to which one embraces loyalty as a moral
value appears to mediate the relationship between group affiliations and preferred punishment
(Study 2). This is a bias participants deny having, but believe others exhibit. This research finds
evidence of loyalty to the principle of loyalty itself. A person will view an out-group member
transgressing a member from that same out-group with disdain similar to that accorded an in-group
member who transgresses the in-group, because the innate badness of the act is compounded by the
stigma of disloyalty.
Psychology and Marketing 03/2013; 30(3):203-210. DOI:10.1002/mar.20598 · 1.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The emotional value of placing in a given percentile of a competition (e.g., placing in the "top 10%") depends on how many competitors are involved. Five studies reveal that winning among larger groups is associated with more positive emotional reactions than winning among smaller groups, even when the objective chances for success are held constant. Participants thought that a runner would feel happier after placing in the top 10% in a race with many (vs. few) competitors (Experiment 1); participants who imagined placing in the top 10% of a trivia quiz predicted that they would feel happier after succeeding among many (vs. few) respondents (Experiment 2); and participants who were given randomly assigned false feedback that they placed in the top 10% of a real creativity challenge actually felt happier when the pool was described as containing many (vs. few) contestants (Experiment 3). This effect appears to be driven by participants' intuitions about the statistical law of large numbers: when people think about success among large pools, they infer that the outcome is more diagnostic of "true" abilities-that the performance must not be a fluke-compared with identical success among small pools, which provides an affective boost (Experiments 4-5). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluates whether economists support economic policies such as free trade because they deem them to be good for their home country or because they increase global welfare. In a telephone survey, 100 German economists were asked to judge different policy proposals dealing with immigration, military exports and climate policy. Our results show that the acceptance of the policy proposals is strongly influenced by national efficiency judgements. In contrast, global efficiency judgements exert no significant positive effect on policy proposal acceptance. These effects even hold for economists who self-reported a global perspective in the assessment of the policy proposals. These judgements might be based on the potentially erroneous assumption that their policy judgements, taken from a national perspective, are consistent with global interests.
German Economic Review 06/2013; 15(4). DOI:10.1111/geer.12017 · 0.67 Impact Factor
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