Predictive Effects of Good Self-Control and Poor Regulation on Alcohol-Related Outcomes: Do Protective Behavioral Strategies Mediate?

Psychology of Addictive Behaviors (Impact Factor: 2.09). 06/2012; 27(1). DOI: 10.1037/a0028818
Source: PubMed


In the present study, we examined whether use of protective behavioral strategies mediated the relationship between self-control constructs and alcohol-related outcomes. According to the two-mode model of self-control, good self-control (planfulness; measured with Future Time Perspective, Problem Solving, and Self-Reinforcement) and poor regulation (impulsivity; measured with Present Time Perspective, Poor Delay of Gratification, Distractibility) are theorized to be relatively independent constructs rather than opposite ends of a single continuum. The analytic sample consisted of 278 college student drinkers (68% women) who responded to a battery of surveys at a single time point. Using a structural equation model based on the two-mode model of self-control, we found that good self-control predicted increased use of three types of protective behavioral strategies (Manner of Drinking, Limiting/Stopping Drinking, and Serious Harm Reduction). Poor regulation was unrelated to use of protective behavioral strategies, but had direct effects on alcohol use and alcohol problems. Further, protective behavioral strategies mediated the relationship between good self-control and alcohol use. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

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    • "This perceived ability to perform such behaviors can be conceptualized as a form of SC, as SC allows one to consider negative consequences of one's behavior and therefore postpone gratification. A recent study found that protective behavioral strategies (e.g., limiting alcohol consumption, alternating between drinking alcohol and nonalcoholic beverages, using a designated driver, etc.; Martens et al., 2007) mediated the association between SC and drinking (Pearson et al., 2013). Therefore , it makes sense that general levels of self-control would protect against heavy drinking. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated self-control in the relationship between drinking identity and drinking. We expected those higher in drinking identity would drink more than those lower in drinking identity, particularly if low in self-control. Data were collected in 2012 via an online survey (N = 690 undergraduates, M age = 22.87, SD = 5.37, 82.50% female) at an urban university. An interaction emerged between self-control and drinking identity; self-control was negatively associated with drinking among individuals low in drinking identity, but positively associated with drinking among those high in drinking identity. Implications and future directions are discussed. This research was unfunded.
    Substance Use &amp Misuse 04/2014; 49(10). DOI:10.3109/10826084.2014.901387 · 1.23 Impact Factor
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    • "In fact, Martens et al. suggest that strategies that involve slowing the pace at which students drink (i.e., MOD strategies) might be particularly effective at reducing alcohol use and risk. In contrast, SHR strategies are more closely associated with consequences than drinking (Martens et al., 2005; Pearson et al., 2012, 2013). This finding likely reflects the fact that this subscale specifically addresses ways in which students can protect themselves by, for example, using a designated driver or going home with friends, and does not include strategies for reducing alcohol intake. "
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    ABSTRACT: Protective behavioral strategies (PBS) are skills that can be used to reduce the risk of alcohol-related negative consequences. Studies have shown that, in general, PBS are related to less alcohol consumption and fewer negative consequences; however, other studies have suggested that not all types of PBS (e.g., stopping/limiting drinking [SLD], manner of drinking [MOD] and serious harm reduction [SHR]) are equally effective at reducing alcohol risk. In addition, few studies have explored the longitudinal relationships among PBS, alcohol use and consequences. Using a sample of heavy drinking college students (N=338), the current study examined PBS use, alcohol consumption and consequences across two time points three months apart. Cross-lagged panel models revealed that MOD predicted a reduction in alcohol use and negative consequences. SHR was longitudinally related to fewer negative consequences, but unrelated to alcohol use. SLD was not associated with drinking or consequences at follow-up. These results highlight the need for future research to examine the effects of different types of PBS and have implications for alcohol intervention programs that incorporate PBS skills training.
    Addictive behaviors 10/2013; 39(2). DOI:10.1016/j.addbeh.2013.10.020 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Much research links impulsivity with alcohol use and problems. In 2 studies, unplanned (or impulsive) drinking is assessed directly to determine whether it has direct effects on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. In Study 1, we examined whether unplanned drinking serves as a proximal mediator of the effects of impulsivity-like traits on alcohol-related outcomes. With a sample of 211 college student drinkers, we found that the Unplanned Drinking Scale was significantly related to alcohol use, and perhaps more important, had a direct effect on alcohol-related problems even after controlling for frequency and quantity of alcohol use. Furthermore, unplanned drinking partially mediated the effects of negative urgency on alcohol-related problems. In Study 2, we examined whether unplanned drinking accounts for unique variance in alcohol-related outcomes when controlling for use of protective behavioral strategies. With a sample of 170 college students, we replicated the findings of Study 1 in that the Unplanned Drinking Scale had a significant direct effect on alcohol-related problems even after controlling for alcohol use; this effect was maintained when controlling for use of protective behavioral strategies. Limitations include the modest sample sizes and the cross-sectional design. Future directions for testing the Model of Unplanned Drinking Behavior are proposed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
    Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 12/2012; 27(3). DOI:10.1037/a0030901 · 2.09 Impact Factor
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