Hybrid Composites from Waste Materials

Journal of Polymers and the Environment (Impact Factor: 1.63). 03/2010; 18(1):65-70. DOI: 10.1007/s10924-009-0155-6

ABSTRACT Hybrid composites of thermoplastic biofiber reinforced with waste newspaper fiber (NF) and poplar wood flour (WF) were prepared.
The weight ratio of the lignocellulosic materials to polymer was 30:70 (w:w). Polypropylene (PP) and maleic anhydride grafted
polypropylene (MAPP) were also used as the polymer matrix and coupling agent, respectively. The mechanical properties, morphology
and thermal properties were investigated. The obtained results showed that tensile and flexural modulus of the composites
were significantly enhanced with addition of biofibers in both types (fiber and flour), as compared with pure PP. However,
the increasing in WF content substantially reduced the tensile, flexural and impact modulus, but improved the thermal stability.
This effect is explained by variations in fiber morphological properties and thermal degradation. Increasing fiber aspect
ratio improved mechanical properties. The effect of fiber size on impact was minimal compared to the effects of fiber content.
Scanning electron microscopy has shown that the composite, with coupling agent, promotes better fiber–matrix interaction.
The largest improvement on the thermal stability of hybrid composites was achieved when WF was added more. In all cases, the
degradation temperatures shifted to higher values after addition of MAPP. This work clearly showed that biofiber materials
in both forms of fiber and flour could be effectively used as reinforcing elements in thermoplastic PP matrix.

KeywordsHybrid composite-Biodegradable-Mechanical properties-Lignocellulosic fibers-Waste materials

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Available from: Alireza Ashori, Aug 04, 2014
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    • "Hybrid composites made from waste materials are also a great option to develop new materials with low costs and specific properties. Ashori [11] prepared hybrid composites made with newspaper fibers and poplar wood flour. They observed that the addition of both fibers enhanced the tensile and flexural modulus compare with neat polypropylene, but increasing wood flour reduced flexural and tensile moduli. "
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    ABSTRACT: This work reports on the properties of high density polyethylene based hybrid composites made with two natural fibers: agave and pine. The composites were produced by a combination of extrusion and injection molding. The effect of hybridization was analyzed via morphological, mechanical and water immersion tests for two total fiber contents, 20 and 30 wt.%, and different pine-agave fiber ratios (100–0, 80–20, 60–40, 40–60 and 0–100). Moreover, the effect of coupling agent (maleated polyethylene) in the hybrid composite formulation was evaluated. The results showed that addition of agave fibers improves tensile, flexural and impact strength, while pine fibers decreases water uptake. As expected, the addition of a coupling agent improves substantially the quality of the polymer–fiber interface as well as the mechanical properties, but this effect was more important for composites produced with higher agave fibers content due to the their chemical composition.
    Materials and Design 12/2014; 64:35-43. DOI:10.1016/j.matdes.2014.07.025 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    • "In the same direction, much effort was made to develop environmental-friendly materials (Lin et al., 2011; Ho et al., 2012; Shakeri and Raghimi, 2010; Wattanakornsiri et al., 2012). Specifically, the use of renewable sources instead of synthetic fibers as carbon, aramid and glass fiber has been an interesting and active research topic (Ardanuy et al., 2012; Ashori and Sheshmani, 2010; Huda et al., 2006; Reixach et al., 2013; Wattanakornsiri et al., 2012). Although much interest was devoted to fully biodegradable materials using biodegradable matrixes (Vilaseca et al., 2010; Wattanakornsiri et al., 2012), currently the most uses for natural fiber composites are thermoplastics, and the most common are polypropylene, polyethylene and poly-vinyl chloride (Huda et al., 2005; Serrano et al., 2013; Vallejos et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: a b s t r a c t The present paper explores the aptness of old newspapers as a source of reinforcing fibers for composite materials. Different percentages of newspaper fibers, obtained by wet (ONPF) and by dry processes (CONPF), were compounded with polypropylene (PP). A coupling agent was added to the compound to improve the interface between matrix and reinforcing fibers. Tensile test were performed to obtain the mechanical properties of the composite materials. Composite materials reinforced with sized glass fiber (GF) were also prepared and tested. The mechanical properties of the materials were compared. A fiber tensile strength factor (FTSF) and a fiber tensile modulus factor (FTMF) were proposed to evaluate the contribution of the reinforcement fibers to the tensile properties of the composite materials. Finally a pump body, made with GF/PP composites was modeled and tested to obtain the nodal stresses and deformations under nominal pressure. A list of ONPF, CONPF reinforced composite materials was pro-posed to replace the GF/PP. A body pump was mold injected with a CONPF/PP composite, was assembled in a water pump and tested under nominal working conditions.
    Journal of Cleaner Production 09/2013; 1(8). DOI:10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.10.003 · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    • "In this regard, most of the literature refers to carbon/glass [7] [8] [9], carbon/aramid [4,10–12], carbon/polyethylene fibres [13] [14] [15] mainly aimed at improving the impact resistance of carbon based laminates. During the last decade, an increasing interest has risen in a relatively new class of hybrid materials based on synthetic (mainly glass fibres) and natural fibres or different natural fibres [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22], with the aim of manufacturing more environmentally friendly composites. As a result of ever stricter environmental requirements, also fibres of mineral origin, such as basalt, are increasingly investigated. "
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    ABSTRACT: a b s t r a c t The low-velocity impact behaviour of hybrid laminates reinforced with woven aramid and basalt fabrics and manufactured by resin transfer moulding was studied. Specimens with different stacking sequences were tested at three different energies, namely 5, 12.5 and 25 J. Residual post-impact properties of the different configurations of aramid/basalt hybrid laminates were characterized by quasi static four point bending tests. Post-impact flexural tests have been monitored using acoustic emission in order to get fur-ther information on failure mechanisms. Results indicate that hybrid laminates with intercalated config-uration (alternating sequence of basalt and aramid fabrics) have better impact energy absorption capability and enhanced damage tolerance with respect to the all-aramid laminates, while basalt and hybrid laminates with sandwich-like configuration (seven basalt fabric layers at the centre of the lami-nate as core and three aramid fabric layers for each side of the composite as skins) present the most favourable flexural behaviour.
    Materials and Design 08/2013; 49:290-302. DOI:10.1016/j.matdes.2013.01.010 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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