Hybrid Composites from Waste Materials

Journal of Polymers and the Environment (Impact Factor: 1.5). 01/2010; 18(1):65-70. DOI: 10.1007/s10924-009-0155-6

ABSTRACT Hybrid composites of thermoplastic biofiber reinforced with waste newspaper fiber (NF) and poplar wood flour (WF) were prepared.
The weight ratio of the lignocellulosic materials to polymer was 30:70 (w:w). Polypropylene (PP) and maleic anhydride grafted
polypropylene (MAPP) were also used as the polymer matrix and coupling agent, respectively. The mechanical properties, morphology
and thermal properties were investigated. The obtained results showed that tensile and flexural modulus of the composites
were significantly enhanced with addition of biofibers in both types (fiber and flour), as compared with pure PP. However,
the increasing in WF content substantially reduced the tensile, flexural and impact modulus, but improved the thermal stability.
This effect is explained by variations in fiber morphological properties and thermal degradation. Increasing fiber aspect
ratio improved mechanical properties. The effect of fiber size on impact was minimal compared to the effects of fiber content.
Scanning electron microscopy has shown that the composite, with coupling agent, promotes better fiber–matrix interaction.
The largest improvement on the thermal stability of hybrid composites was achieved when WF was added more. In all cases, the
degradation temperatures shifted to higher values after addition of MAPP. This work clearly showed that biofiber materials
in both forms of fiber and flour could be effectively used as reinforcing elements in thermoplastic PP matrix.

KeywordsHybrid composite-Biodegradable-Mechanical properties-Lignocellulosic fibers-Waste materials

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This article presents the application of agro-waste materials (i.e., bagasse and corn stalk fibers) along with E-glass fiber in order to evaluate and compare their suitability as reinforcement for thermoplastic composites. The hybrid effect of glass and cellulosic fibers on the tensile, flexural, and impact properties of the composites were investigated. Water absorption and thickness swelling were also studied. In general, the hybrid composites presented superior properties compared to the control (without glass fiber) samples. Additionally, synergistic improvements in the physico-mechanical properties of composites were obtained with the addition of glass fiber. Overall trend shows that with the addition of agro-waste materials, tensile and flexural properties of the composites were moderately enhanced. However, corn stalk fibers showed superior mechanical properties due to their high aspect ratio and chemical characteristics. Addition of glass fibers into the composites considerably enhanced tensile, flexural, and impact properties without having significant effect on the elongation at break. Morphological study also confirmed the impact behavior of composites. Moreover, incorporation of glass fiber with agro-waste fibers in PP matrix considerably decreased the water uptake and thickness swelling of the hybrid composites.
    Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering 01/2014; 53(1). · 1.48 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: a b s t r a c t The low-velocity impact behaviour of hybrid laminates reinforced with woven aramid and basalt fabrics and manufactured by resin transfer moulding was studied. Specimens with different stacking sequences were tested at three different energies, namely 5, 12.5 and 25 J. Residual post-impact properties of the different configurations of aramid/basalt hybrid laminates were characterized by quasi static four point bending tests. Post-impact flexural tests have been monitored using acoustic emission in order to get fur-ther information on failure mechanisms. Results indicate that hybrid laminates with intercalated config-uration (alternating sequence of basalt and aramid fabrics) have better impact energy absorption capability and enhanced damage tolerance with respect to the all-aramid laminates, while basalt and hybrid laminates with sandwich-like configuration (seven basalt fabric layers at the centre of the lami-nate as core and three aramid fabric layers for each side of the composite as skins) present the most favourable flexural behaviour.
    Materials and Design 01/2013; 49:290-302. · 2.91 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: a b s t r a c t The present paper explores the aptness of old newspapers as a source of reinforcing fibers for composite materials. Different percentages of newspaper fibers, obtained by wet (ONPF) and by dry processes (CONPF), were compounded with polypropylene (PP). A coupling agent was added to the compound to improve the interface between matrix and reinforcing fibers. Tensile test were performed to obtain the mechanical properties of the composite materials. Composite materials reinforced with sized glass fiber (GF) were also prepared and tested. The mechanical properties of the materials were compared. A fiber tensile strength factor (FTSF) and a fiber tensile modulus factor (FTMF) were proposed to evaluate the contribution of the reinforcement fibers to the tensile properties of the composite materials. Finally a pump body, made with GF/PP composites was modeled and tested to obtain the nodal stresses and deformations under nominal pressure. A list of ONPF, CONPF reinforced composite materials was pro-posed to replace the GF/PP. A body pump was mold injected with a CONPF/PP composite, was assembled in a water pump and tested under nominal working conditions.
    Journal of Cleaner Production 09/2013; 1(8). · 3.40 Impact Factor


1 Download
Available from
Aug 4, 2014