A cross-linkable fluorinated poly (ether ether ketone) (FPEEK) was synthesized for the fabrication of arrayed waveguide grating
(AWG) multiplexer. The results of thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and near-infrared absorption spectrum show that the materials
have high thermal stability and high optical transparency in the infrared communication region. The refractive index of FPEEK
can be controlled easily by changing the fluorine content of the materials. The 32-channel AWG multiplexer is fabricated using
the FPEEK and oxygen reactive ion etching technology. The AWG multiplexer exhibits that the insertion loss is from 12.8 to
17.8 dB and the channel crosstalk is less than −20 dB. The wavelength channel spacing and the center wavelength are 0.8 nm
and 1 548 nm, respectively.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some novel cross-linkable fluorinated poly(arylene ether sulfides) (FPAESI) were synthesized for use in optical waveguide applications. The materials have high thermal stability, high optical transparency in the infrared communication region, and much less birefringence than other thermally stable fluorinated polyimides. The refractive index of FPAESI after storage at 100°C for 1000 h remains almost constant, demonstrating their thermal stability. Furthermore, the refractive index of the material can be easily controlled by changing the fluorine content of the materials. The propagation loss of channel waveguides, which were fabricated using reactive ion etching was less than 0.42 dB/cm and 0.4 dB/cm at the wavelength of 1.55 μm for TE and TM polarizations, respectively
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors have developed a polymer thermo-optic wavelength
tunable filter with a pair of triangular phase shifters on an
arrayed-waveguide grating, which provides a fast response and wideband
tunability. This filter operated with a response time of 2-60 ms and a
tunability of >20 nm
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polymer optical waveguide devices will play a key role in several rapidly developing areas of broadband communications, such as optical networking, metropolitan/access communications, and computing systems due to their easier processibility and integration over inorganic counterparts. The combined advantages also makes them an ideal integration platform where foreign material systems such as YIG (yttrium iron garnet) and lithium niobate, and semiconductor devices such as lasers, detectors, amplifiers, and logic circuits can be inserted into an etched groove in a planar lightwave circuit to enable full amplifier modules or optical add/drop multiplexers on a single substrate. Moreover, the combination of flexibility and toughness in optical polymers makes it suitable for vertical integration to realize 3D and even all-polymer integrated optics. In this review, a survey of suitable optical polymer systems, their processing techniques, and the integrated optical waveguide components and circuits derived from these materials is summarized. The first part is focused on discussing the characteristics of several important classes of optical polymers, such as their refractive index, optical loss, processibility/mechanical properties, and environmental performance. Then, the emphasis is placed on the discussion of several novel passive and active (electro-optic and thermo-optic) polymer systems and versatile processing techniques commonly used for fabricating component devices, such as photoresist-based patterning, direct lithographic patterning, and soft lithography. At the end, a series of compelling polymer optical waveguide devices including optical interconnects, directional couplers, array waveguide grating (AWG) multi/demultiplexers, switches, tunable filters, variable optical attenuators (VOAs), and amplifiers are reviewed. Several integrated planar lightwave circuits, such as tunable optical add/drop multiplexers (OADMs), photonic crystal superprism waveguides, digital optical switches (DOSs) integrated with VOAs, traveling-wave heterojunction phototransistors, and three-dimensionally (3D) integrated optical devices are also highlighted.
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