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Salicylic acid mitigates salinity stress by improving antioxidant defence system and enhances vincristine and vinblastine alkaloids production in periwinkle [Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don]. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 33, 987-999

Acta Physiologiae Plantarum (Impact Factor: 1.52). 05/2011; 33(3):987-999. DOI: 10.1007/s11738-010-0631-6

ABSTRACT A pot experiment was conducted to find out whether the foliar spray of salicylic acid (SA) could successfully ameliorate the
adverse effects of salinity stress on periwinkle. Thirty-day-old plants were supplied with Control; 0mM NaCl+10−5M SA (T1); 50mM NaCl+0 SA (T2); 100mM NaCl+0 SA (T3); 150mM NaCl+0 SA (T4); 50mM NaCl+10−5M SA (T5); 100mM NaCl+10−5M SA (T6); 150mM NaCl+10−5M SA (T7). The plants were sampled 90days after sowing to assess the effect of SA on stressed and unstressed plants. Salt stress
significantly reduced the growth attributes including plant height, leaf-area index, shoot and root fresh weights, shoot and
root dry weights. Increasing NaCl concentrations led to a gradual decrease in photosynthetic parameters and activities of
nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase. Ascorbic acid, total alkaloids and antioxidants enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase
and peroxidase also declined in NaCl-treated plants. The plants, undergoing NaCl stress, exhibited a significant increase
in electrolyte leakage and proline content. Foliar application of SA (10−5M) reduced the damaging effect of salinity on plant growth and accelerated the restoration of growth processes. It not only
improved the growth parameters but also reversed the effects of salinity. Total alkaloid content was improved by SA application
both in unstressed and stressed plants. The highest level of total alkaloid content recorded in leaves of SA-treated stressed
plants was 11.1%. Foliar spray of SA overcame the adverse effect of salinity by improving the content of vincristine (14.0%)
and vinblastine (14.6%) in plants treated with 100M NaCl.

KeywordsAscorbic acid–Antioxidant–Catalase–
Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don–Peroxidase–Salicylic acid–Salt stress–Vincristine–Vinblastine

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    • "Salicylic acid, well known for the systemic acquired resistance it induces in the plant response to many pathogens, can also elicit the production of secondary metabolites in plants (Hayat et al., 2010; Pieterse and van Loon, 1999). It stimulated the production of alkaloids such as vincristine and vinblastine in periwinkle (Idrees et al., 2010), the tropane alkaloid scopolamine in hairy root cultures of Brugmansia candida (Pitta-Alvarez et al., 2000), and pilocarpine in jaborandi leaves (Avancini et al., 2003). Anthraquinone production was greatly increased in Rubia cordifolia after a salicylic acid treatment (Bulgakov et al., 2002), as was GS in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) (Kiddle et al., 1994). "
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    ABSTRACT: There is large area of saline abandoned and lowyielding land distributed in coastal zone in the world. Soil salinity which inhibits plant growth and decreases crop yield is a serious and chronic problem for agricultural production. Improving plant salt tolerance is a feasible way to solve this problem. Plant physiological and biochemical responses under salinity stress become a hot issue at present, because it can provide insights into how plants may be modified to become more tolerant. It is generally known that the negative effects of soil salinity on plants are ascribed to ion toxicity, oxidative stress and osmotic stress, and great progress has been made in the study on molecular and physiological mechanisms of plant salinity tolerance in recent years. However, the present knowledge is not easily applied in the agronomy research under field environment. In this review, we simplified the physiological adaptive mechanisms in plants grown in saline soil and put forward a practical procedure for discerning physiological status and responses. In our opinion, this procedure consists of two steps. First, negative effects of salt stress are evaluated by the changes in biomass, crop yield and photosynthesis. Second, the underlying reasons are analyzed from osmotic regulation, antioxidant response and ion homeostasis. Photosynthesis is a good indicator of the harmful effects of saline soil on plants because of its close relation with crop yield and high sensitivity to environmental stress. Particularly, chlorophyll a fluorescence transient has been accepted as a reliable, sensitive and convenient tool in photosynthesis research in recent years, and it can facilitate and enrich photosynthetic research under field environment.
    Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 06/2013; DOI:10.1007/s11738-013-1325-7 · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    • "This paper for the first time presents an analysis of the demethylase expression in the grape cell cultures at normal conditions and after treatment with demethyation agent azaC and stress phytohormone SA (Idrees et al. 2011; Morkunas et al. 2011). In normal conditions in V. amurensis cell cultures we found two expressed demethylase genes: VaDem1 (homologue of ROS1 of A. thaliana) and less expressed VaDem2 (homologue of DML3 of A. thaliana). "
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    ABSTRACT: DNA methylation, especially cytosine methylation, is known to play an important role in various developmental processes and defense mechanisms in plants and other organisms. The level and pattern of cytosine methylation are determined by both DNA methylation and demethylation machineries. DNA methylation is known to be established and maintained by DNA methyltransferases, whereas active DNA demethylation is performed by DNA glycosylases. In our previous study, the expression of methylatransferases in cell cultures of Vitis amurensis was studied. The purpose of the present work was to analyze demethylase (Dem) gene expression in the control (V2) and transformed with rolB gene (VB2) from Agrobacterium rhizogenes cell cultures of V. amurensis under the influence of 5-azacytidine (azaC) induced DNA demethylation and treatment with salicylic acid (SA), a plant stress phytohormone. The lowest total Dem expression was detected in the V. amurensis calli of the control V2 cell culture without treatment, while higher Dem expression was detected in the leaves of the 8-year-old V. amurensis plant. Treatment with azaC and SA significantly increased total Dem expression in the V. amurensis V2 and VB2 cell cultures 1.4–3.2 times. Using frequency analysis of reverse transcriptase PCR products obtained with degenerate primers and real-time PCR we analyzed expression of the three Dem transcripts: VaDem1, VaDem2, and VaDem3. The deduced amino acid sequence of VaDem1 is highly homologous to the V. vinifera Ros1-like gene (XM_002277365), VaDem2 to the VvDML3-like (XM_002270849); VaDem3 to the VvDemeter-like (XM_002267274). In the cDNA of the V. amurensis cell cultures the VaDem1 transcripts were more abundant than the VaDem2 and VaDem3 transcripts. Addition of azaC and SA significantly increased the VaDem1 and VaDem2 expression. The results indicate that the VaDem2 gene (a homologue of DML3 of A. thaliana) and the VaDem1 gene (a homologue of ROS1 of A. thaliana) are important in stress response and our data suggest that the VaDem2 and VaDem1 genes are important candidates for future research on the mechanisms of plant defence responses.
    Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 06/2013; 35(6). DOI:10.1007/s11738-013-1222-0 · 1.52 Impact Factor
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