Perception of stigma among family members of individuals with schizophrenia and major affective disorders in rural Ethiopia

Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology (Impact Factor: 2.54). 01/2001; 36(6):299-303. DOI: 10.1007/s001270170048
Source: PubMed


Background: Many studies from the Western world have reported on stigmatisation of people with mental illnesses and its negative consequences,
but few studies have addressed the issue in traditional rural societies. The present study aimed to estimate the extent and
socio-demographic distribution of stigma as perceived by relatives of mentally ill individuals in rural Ethiopia. Method: A total of 178 relatives of individuals who were diagnosed as suffering from schizophrenia or major affective disorders in
a community-based survey were interviewed using the Family Interview Schedule. Results: About 75 % of the respondents perceived that they were stigmatised or had experienced some sort of stigma due to the presence
of mental illness in the family, 42 % were worried about being treated differently and 37 % wanted to conceal the fact that
a relative was ill. Those from the older age group (45+) and urban residents were more likely to perceive stigma as a major
problem, but otherwise differences were few between socio-demographic groups. The illness was attributed to supernatural forces
by 27 % and praying was suggested as a preferred method to deal with the problem by 65 %. Conclusion: Stigma was found to be a common problem, with few differences between socio-demographic groups or between types of mental
disorder. Beliefs about causes differ from those held by professionals. Popular beliefs and attitudes must be taken into account
when planning for intervention.

1 Follower
239 Reads
  • Source
    • "In this study the prevalence of drug abuse as cause of mental illness was relatively higher (92 percent) compared to 72.5 percent found by Adewuya and Makanjuola (2008). Several studies from the western culture showed that biological factors (diseases of the brain and hereditary influences) and environmental factors (trauma and stress) are more frequently considered to cause mental illness (Stuart and Arbodela- Florez, 2001; Adewuya and Makanjuola, 2008); while in most African cultures, beliefs in supernatural causation are prominent (Shibre et al., 2001; Gureje et al., 2005; Adewuya and Makanjuola, 2008). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to determine perceived barriers to utilization of mental health services among adults in Dodoma Municipality, Tanzania. To improve the use of mental health services, identifying related perceived barriers is a key step. Design/methodology/approach – A concurrent mixed method model was used. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews (n=152) using a structured survey questionnaire. In addition in-depth interviews were conducted (n=10). The quantitative data were analyzed by using Epi info version 2002. Content analysis was used for analyzing qualitative data. Findings – Themajority of respondents opted to usemodernmental health facilities formental illness treatment. They also used spiritual healing and other forms traditional methods including herbal medicines. The most frequently identified causes ofmental illness were: drug abuse, being cursed and witchcraft, demons or evil spirit possession. The reported significant perceived barriers were stigma, economic, lack of transport, witchcraft, lack of awareness of mental health services, unemployment, and negative believes about professional cure. Originality/value – The option for mental health service utilization is influenced by the existing barriers on community and clients’ perception. There is a need for mental health professionals and policy makers to integrate mental health into primary care. Mutual sharing of knowledge between mental health professionals and tradition healers is warranted. Further research on the attitudes toward mental health professional services and on effectiveness of traditional healers’ services is indicated.
    Journal of public mental health 06/2015; 14(2):79-93. DOI:10.1108/JPMH-09-2012-0008
  • Source
    • "Schizophrenia is one of the most disabling and severely stigmatized mental disorder, which was selected as the central focus of the World Psychiatric Association’s global anti-stigma programme entitled ‘Open the Doors’ [1]. Stigma is common [2,3] and remains a major burden for individuals with psychiatric disorders [4,5], their families [6,7] and caregivers [8]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is one of the most disabling and severely stigmatized mental disorders. Together with social stigma, internalized stigma and perceived stigma can trigger a vicious cycle and diminishes the stigma resistance abilities of individual. Helping patients to cope up with perceived and internalized stigma play crucial role in fighting stigma. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of stigma resistance among people with schizophrenia attending the outpatient department of Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study design was employed. Single population proportion formula was used to calculate sample size. Subjects were selected by systematic sampling techniques. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to identify the presence and strength of association. Odds ratios with 95% confidence interval were computed to determine the level of significance. A total of 411 subjects participated in the study giving a response rate of 97.4%. The prevalence of low stigma resistance was found to be 51.6%. Rural residence (AOR = 0.29 (95% CI: 0.142, 0.594), difficulties of adherence to antipsychotic medication (AOR = AOR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.155, 0.542), internalized stigma (AOR = 0.24, 95% CI: (0.111, 0.530), alienation (AOR = 0.5, 95% CI: (0.270, 0.927), stereotype endorsement (AOR = 0.37(95% CI: 0.312, 0.463) and social withdrawal (AOR = 0.27, 95% CI: (0.156, 0.468) were factors statistically associated with low stigma resistance. In this study, overall more than half of the study participants had low stigma resistance. Rural residence, difficulties of adherence to antipsychotic medication, high internalized stigma, alienation and social withdrawal were factors statistically associated with low stigma resistance. Encouraging participations in different social relationships such as befriending programs, family and peer support groups are recommended.
    BMC Psychiatry 09/2014; 2014(1):694565. DOI:10.1155/2014/694565 · 2.21 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "(2003) concluded that patients and their families experience discrimination due to mental illness and burden. Three large studies showed that about one fi fth to one third of the family members reported consternations and distant relationships with the rest of the family group because of the mentally ill relative (Ostman & Kjellin, 2002; Shibre et al., 2001; Struening, Perlick, Link, Hellman, Herman, & Sirey, 2001). Magliano, Fiorillo, Malangone, Marasco, Guarneri and Maj (2003) stated that it is possible, when relatives have limited social sources, to develop more pessimistic attitudes towards certain topics such as opportunities, schizophrenia patients keeping their civil rights and reaching effective goals. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Schizophrenia is a debilitating mental illness that has a significant impact not only in the patient but also in the entire family as well. Caregivers assume almost the totality of the patient care. This responsibility exposes caregivers to an intense burden with negative consequences for them and the rest of the family system. This is an updated review of existing literature about burden on families with schizophrenia patients. Method: An electronic search of articles from MEDLINE, EMBASE, APA, EBSCO, and Cochrane databases was conducted for articles published between 2008 and 2013. Results: A systematization of information and frequency analysis revealed the existence of eight factors related to burden that were present in almost all the reviewed literature: Programs of family treatment, Ethnic group, Expressed Emotion, Stress and Burden, Preoccupations of the caregiver, Kind of caregiver, Social networks, Social support, Finances and Coping Strategies. Conclusions: This study supports the statements of different theories reflecting the complexity of schizophrenia caregivers' burden and these, in turn, may be related to the above factors.
    Psicothema 05/2014; 26(2):235-43. DOI:10.7334/psicothema2013.86 · 0.96 Impact Factor
Show more