PROXIMITY: An update and expansion of the PROXTIME computer program

University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, North Carolina, United States
Behavior Research Methods (Impact Factor: 2.12). 04/2012; 32(3):432-435. DOI: 10.3758/BF03200812


A new program, called PROXIMITY, was created as a tool for proximity calculation and to update and expand upon Kirste and
Monge’s (1983) PROXTIME program. The purpose of PROXIMITY is to calculate the fluctuating proximity between individuals within
organizations. PROXIMITY provides output for three types of relationships: (1) an overall organizational proximity, (2) pairwise
proximity between individuals, and (3) individual proximity to multiple others. PROXIMITY also updates some of PROXTIME’s
features such as the computer platform, the type of data the program can handle, and the form of output available.

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    ABSTRACT: Traditional measures of proximity all share three common weaknesses when applied to the study of human organizations: (a) they are based on linear physical distance rather than functional distance, (b) they measure distance as a fixed rather than a fluctuating quantity, and (c) they treat people as proximate to a single other person rather than to multiple others. A measure of proximity which attempts to deal with these problems for research in large organizations is developed in this paper. Proximity is defined as the probability of people being in the same location during the same period of time, i.e., as an opportunity for face-to-face communication made possible by people sharing a communication space and time. It is operationalized as a mean joint probability among all people in the organization. A computer program (PROXVAL) developed to calculate the required quantities is described. Data which demonstrate the usefulness of the procedure are reported.
    Social Psychology Quarterly 03/1980; 43(1):110. DOI:10.2307/3033753 · 1.89 Impact Factor


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