Multiple Roles and Well-being: Sociodemographic and Psychological Moderators

Sex Roles (Impact Factor: 1.47). 01/2006; 55(11):801-815. DOI: 10.1007/s11199-006-9134-8

ABSTRACT Research on multiple roles has supported the enhancement hypothesis, but it is unclear if benefits of multiple role involvement
exist across all segments of the population. This study was designed to examine whether the role enhancement hypothesis suits
both men and women with varied education levels. A further goal was to determine if perceived control moderates associations
between multiple role involvement and well-being. This sample included 2,634 individuals from the Midlife in the United States
(MIDUS) survey who occupied up to eight roles each. Psychological well-being was measured in six dimensions (autonomy, environmental
mastery, personal growth, positive relations with others, purpose in life, and self-acceptance); positive and negative affect
were also measured. Results of hierarchical regression analyses supported the role enhancement hypothesis, as greater role
involvement was associated with greater well-being; however, the findings suggest that it was only well educated women with
multiple roles who showed higher levels of autonomy. Perceived control was also found to moderate some of the obtained linkages.

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    ABSTRACT: Psychosocial resources are individual differences and social relationships that have beneficial effects on mental and physical health outcomes. The exact processes whereby psychosocial resources beneficially affect well-being and physical health outcomes have, until recently, been largely unknown. We examine chronic negative and positive affect, approach versus avoidant coping processes, and neural responses to threat as likely mediators. These, in turn, regulate psychological, autonomic, neuroendocrine, and immune responses, the likely proximal factors that lead to differential health outcomes. The origins of psychosocial resources are in the early environment, genetic predispositions, and their interaction. We conclude with consideration of whether psychosocial resources can be taught and a discussion of issues remaining to be addressed by future research.
    Advances in Experimental Social Psychology - ADVAN EXP SOC PSYCHOL. 01/2011; 44:1-57.
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    Journal of Family and Economic Issues 10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Previous findings from quantitative research have shown that the majority of young Australian women aged 18 to 23 years aspire to be married, with children, and in the paid workforce when they are 35 years of age. However, the Theory of Emerging Adulthood suggests that this period of the lifespan is characterized by a prolonged stage of exploration and self-focussed identity formation, and young women could be expected to be in the process of formulating and changing their future plans and aspirations. Qualitative analysis is conducted on over 600 comments provided by young Australian women from The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health across three time points, on topics related to these women’s aspirations for the future. This analysis contextualizes existing, quantitative, findings on women’s aspirations for work and family, and provides a richer understanding of women’s thoughts about work and family, and their progression toward decision making around these future roles, in contemporary society.
    Journal of Adolescent Research - J ADOLESCENT RES. 01/2012; 27(3):351-376.


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