Article

Multiple Roles and Well-being: Sociodemographic and Psychological Moderators

Sex Roles (Impact Factor: 1.47). 12/2006; 55(11):801-815. DOI: 10.1007/s11199-006-9134-8

ABSTRACT Research on multiple roles has supported the enhancement hypothesis, but it is unclear if benefits of multiple role involvement
exist across all segments of the population. This study was designed to examine whether the role enhancement hypothesis suits
both men and women with varied education levels. A further goal was to determine if perceived control moderates associations
between multiple role involvement and well-being. This sample included 2,634 individuals from the Midlife in the United States
(MIDUS) survey who occupied up to eight roles each. Psychological well-being was measured in six dimensions (autonomy, environmental
mastery, personal growth, positive relations with others, purpose in life, and self-acceptance); positive and negative affect
were also measured. Results of hierarchical regression analyses supported the role enhancement hypothesis, as greater role
involvement was associated with greater well-being; however, the findings suggest that it was only well educated women with
multiple roles who showed higher levels of autonomy. Perceived control was also found to moderate some of the obtained linkages.

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    • "Alternatively, according to the enhancement hypothesis (Thoits, 1983), multiple social identifications may increase a person's level of psychological strength by providing more potential sources of social status and self-esteem. It was shown, for example, that multi-role involvement is experienced as a source of meaning and purpose in people's lives (Simon, 1997) and is positively related to psychological well-being (Ahrens & Ryff, 2006). Thoits (1983) argued for a positive relationship between the number of roles a person has and that person's psychological health. "
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    ABSTRACT: The research examined the relationship between multiple social identifications and self-esteem. Early adolescents (M = 11.4, SD = .95) and mid-adolescents (M = 15.9, SD = 1.18) from Germany and Israel (n = 2337) were studied. Respondents described their social identification as students, family members, and as members of the majority national group and reported self-esteem. A longitudinal, cross-sectional and cross-cultural design revealed, as predicted, multiple social identifications related positively to self-esteem concurrently; they also related positively to self-esteem longitudinally over the course of a year. Moreover, multiple social identifications were found to be antecedent to self-esteem, not vice versa. Finally, multiple social identifications were found to decrease over time. The article discusses the contribution of multiple social identifications to self-esteem at different ages and in various contexts. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Adolescence 07/2015; 44:21-31. DOI:10.1016/j.adolescence.2015.06.008 · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    • "Likewise, Ahrens and Ryff (2006, see also Ryff & Keyes, 1995) developed a measure that assesses specific dimensions of well-being (Ahrens & Ryff, 2006; Ryff & Keyes, 1995), including environmental mastery, purpose in life, personal growth, and autonomy (eudaimonic well-being); positive relations with others (social well-being); and self-acceptance (psychological wellbeing ). Thriving can also be assessed with a combination of individually validated measures of (a) happiness (Diener & Diener, 1996) and life satisfaction (Diener, 1994) for hedonic well-being; (b) goal pursuit/self-growth (Ebner, Freund, & Baltes, 2006; B. C. Feeney, 2004, 2007; Scheier et al., 2006) and mastery/efficacy (Ahrens & Ryff, 2006; Sherer et al., 1982) for eudaimonic well-being; (c) self-views (Rosenberg, 1965), optimism (Scheier, Carver, & Bridges, 1994), and psychological symptoms (Derogatis & Melisaratos, 1983; Hu, Stewart-Brown, Twigg, & Weich, 2007) for psychological well-being; (d) relationship quality/functioning measures (Rempel, Holmes, & Zanna, 1985; Rusbult, Martz, & Agnew, 1998; Spanier, 1976) for social well-being; and (e) health symptoms (Brodman, Erdmann, & Wolff, 1974), physician visits, health-related behaviors, and sleep quality (Buysse, Reynolds, Monk, & Berman, 1989) for physical well-being. Observational and biological assessments of these components of thriving could be assessed as well. "
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    ABSTRACT: Close and caring relationships are undeniably linked to health and well-being at all stages in the life span. Yet the specific pathways through which close relationships promote optimal well-being are not well understood. In this article, we present a model of thriving through relationships to provide a theoretical foundation for identifying the specific interpersonal processes that underlie the effects of close relationships on thriving. This model highlights two life contexts through which people may potentially thrive (coping successfully with life’s adversities and actively pursuing life opportunities for growth and development), it proposes two relational support functions that are fundamental to the experience of thriving in each life context, and it identifies mediators through which relational support is likely to have long-term effects on thriving. This perspective highlights the need for researchers to take a new look at social support by conceptualizing it as an interpersonal process with a focus on thriving.
    Personality and Social Psychology Review 10/2014; DOI:10.1177/1088868314544222 · 7.55 Impact Factor
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    • "Likewise, Ahrens and Ryff (2006, see also Ryff & Keyes, 1995) developed a measure that assesses specific dimensions of well-being (Ahrens & Ryff, 2006; Ryff & Keyes, 1995), including environmental mastery, purpose in life, personal growth, and autonomy (eudaimonic well-being); positive relations with others (social well-being); and self-acceptance (psychological wellbeing ). Thriving can also be assessed with a combination of individually validated measures of (a) happiness (Diener & Diener, 1996) and life satisfaction (Diener, 1994) for hedonic well-being; (b) goal pursuit/self-growth (Ebner, Freund, & Baltes, 2006; B. C. Feeney, 2004, 2007; Scheier et al., 2006) and mastery/efficacy (Ahrens & Ryff, 2006; Sherer et al., 1982) for eudaimonic well-being; (c) self-views (Rosenberg, 1965), optimism (Scheier, Carver, & Bridges, 1994), and psychological symptoms (Derogatis & Melisaratos, 1983; Hu, Stewart-Brown, Twigg, & Weich, 2007) for psychological well-being; (d) relationship quality/functioning measures (Rempel, Holmes, & Zanna, 1985; Rusbult, Martz, & Agnew, 1998; Spanier, 1976) for social well-being; and (e) health symptoms (Brodman, Erdmann, & Wolff, 1974), physician visits, health-related behaviors, and sleep quality (Buysse, Reynolds, Monk, & Berman, 1989) for physical well-being. Observational and biological assessments of these components of thriving could be assessed as well. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Close and caring relationships are undeniably linked to health and well-being at all stages in the life span. Yet the specific pathways through which close relationships promote optimal well-being are not well understood. In this article, we present a model of thriving through relationships to provide a theoretical foundation for identifying the specific interpersonal processes that underlie the effects of close relationships on thriving. This model highlights two life contexts through which people may potentially thrive (coping successfully with life’s adversities and actively pursuing life opportunities for growth and development), it proposes two relational support functions that are fundamental to the experience of thriving in each life context, and it identifies mediators through which relational support is likely to have long-term effects on thriving. This perspective highlights the need for researchers to take a new look at social support by conceptualizing it as an interpersonal process with a focus on thriving.
    Personality and Social Psychology Review 08/2014; · 7.55 Impact Factor
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