Liquid Perfluorocarbons as Contrast Agents for Ultrasonography and 19F-MRI
ABSTRACT Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are fluorinated compounds that have been used for many years in clinics mainly as gas/oxygen carriers
and for liquid ventilation. Besides this main application, PFCs have also been tested as contrast agents for ultrasonography
and magnetic resonance imaging since the end of the 1970s. However, most of the PFCs applied as contrast agents for imaging
were gaseous. This class of PFCs has been recently substituted by liquid PFCs as ultrasound contrast agents. Additionally,
liquid PFCs are being tested as contrast agents for 19F magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), to yield dual contrast agents for both ultrasonography and 19F MRI. This review focuses on the development and applications of the different contrast agents containing liquid perfluorocarbons
for ultrasonography and/or MRI: large and small size emulsions (i.e. nanoemulsions) and nanocapsules.