An Ecological Alternative to Snodgrass & Vanderwart: 360 High Quality Colour Images with Norms for Seven Psycholinguistic Variables

Departamento de Psicología Básica I, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Madrid, Spain.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.23). 05/2012; 7(5):e37527. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037527
Source: PubMed


This work presents a new set of 360 high quality colour images belonging to 23 semantic subcategories. Two hundred and thirty-six Spanish speakers named the items and also provided data from seven relevant psycholinguistic variables: age of acquisition, familiarity, manipulability, name agreement, typicality and visual complexity. Furthermore, we also present lexical frequency data derived from Internet search hits. Apart from the high number of variables evaluated, knowing that it affects the processing of stimuli, this new set presents important advantages over other similar image corpi: (a) this corpus presents a broad number of subcategories and images; for example, this will permit researchers to select stimuli of appropriate difficulty as required, (e.g., to deal with problems derived from ceiling effects); (b) the fact of using coloured stimuli provides a more realistic, ecologically-valid, representation of real life objects. In sum, this set of stimuli provides a useful tool for research on visual object- and word-processing, both in neurological patients and in healthy controls.

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    • "We selected 18 colored photographs of daily-life objects from two standardized stimulus sets (Brodeur, Dionne-Dostie, Montreuil, Lepage, & Op de Beeck, 2010; Moreno-Martínez & Montoro, 2012). Half of the objects were kitchen utensils whereas the other half were garage tools. "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the current study was to investigate to what extent low-level versus high-level effects determine where the eyes land on isolated daily-life objects. We operationalized low-level effects as eye movements toward an object's center of gravity (CoG) or the absolute object center (OC) and high-level effects as visuomotor priming by object affordances. In two experiments, we asked participants to make saccades toward peripherally presented photographs of graspable objects (e.g., a hammer) and to either categorize them (Experiment 1) or to discriminate them from visually matched nonobjects (Experiment 2). Objects were rotated such that their graspable part (e.g., the hammer's handle) pointed toward either the left or the right whereas their action-performing part (e.g., the hammer's head) pointed toward the other side. We found that early-triggered saccades were neither biased toward the object's graspable part nor toward its action-performing part. Instead, participants' eyes landed near the CoG/OC. Only longer-latency initial saccades and refixations were subject to high-level influences, being significantly biased toward the object's action-performing part. Our comparison with eye movements toward visually matched nonobjects revealed that the latter was not merely the consequence of a low-level effect of shape, texture, asymmetry, or saliency. Instead, we interpret it as a higher-level, object-based affordance effect that requires time, and to some extent also foveation, in order to build up and to overcome default saccadic-programming mechanisms.
    Journal of Vision 04/2015; 15(5):8. DOI:10.1167/15.5.8 · 2.39 Impact Factor
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    • "Twenty-four target pictures and 48 distractors were selected according to published feature production norms (McRae et al., 2005; see Appendix B). Pictures were color photographs sourced from normative databases (e.g., Adlington et al., 2009; Moreno-Martínez and Montoro, 2012) and the internet. Distinctive features were determined via the “distinctiveness” measure in the McRae et al. (2005) norms, defined as the inverse of the number of concepts in which that feature occurs in the norms. "
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    ABSTRACT: Contemporary models of spoken word production assume conceptual feature sharing determines the speed with which objects are named in categorically-related contexts. However, statistical models of concept representation have also identified a role for feature distinctiveness, i.e., features that identify a single concept and serve to distinguish it quickly from other similar concepts. In three experiments we investigated whether distinctive features might explain reports of counter-intuitive semantic facilitation effects in the picture word interference (PWI) paradigm. In Experiment 1, categorically-related distractors matched in terms of semantic similarity ratings (e.g., zebra and pony) and manipulated with respect to feature distinctiveness (e.g., a zebra has stripes unlike other equine species) elicited interference effects of comparable magnitude. Experiments 2 and 3 investigated the role of feature distinctiveness with respect to reports of facilitated naming with part-whole distractor-target relations (e.g., a hump is a distinguishing part of a CAMEL, whereas knee is not, vs. an unrelated part such as plug). Related part distractors did not influence target picture naming latencies significantly when the part denoted by the related distractor was not visible in the target picture (whether distinctive or not; Experiment 2). When the part denoted by the related distractor was visible in the target picture, non-distinctive part distractors slowed target naming significantly at SOA of -150 ms (Experiment 3). Thus, our results show that semantic interference does occur for part-whole distractor-target relations in PWI, but only when distractors denote features shared with the target and other category exemplars. We discuss the implications of these results for some recently developed, novel accounts of lexical access in spoken word production.
    Frontiers in Psychology 09/2014; 5:1014. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01014 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    • "To assess the functional actions, two other groups rated the ease with which the objects could be pantomimed and to report the number of actions they could execute with the objects. These two sets of measures correlated differently with the other dimensions of the objects, such as their familiarity and visual complexity (see Brodeur et al., 2010), as well as with other studies providing norms on the manipulability of objects (Brodeur et al., 2010; Magnié et al., 2003; Moreno-Martínez & Montero, 2012; Salmon et al., 2010). Our results also showed that objects that were easy to grasp and pantomime, as well as those that afforded a larger number of actions, were recognized faster. "
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    ABSTRACT: The role of objects' motor affordances in cognition is a topic that has gained in popularity over the last decades. However, few studies exist that have normed the different motor dimensions of the objects; this limits researchers regarding usable stimuli, as well as comparability between studies. In the present study, we normed a set of 560 objects on four motor dimensions: the ease with which they can be grasped, moved, and pantomimed and the number of actions they afford. We then examined whether these four dimensions predict objects' naming latency. We believe that these norms will allow researchers interested in the role of motor affordances to have a better control over the dimensions they want to manipulate.
    Behavior Research Methods 06/2014; 47(2). DOI:10.3758/s13428-014-0488-5 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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