Cervical Cancer Screening and Acute Care Visits Among Medicaid Enrollees With Mental and Substance Use Disorders
ABSTRACT This study compared rates of cervical cancer screening and acute care (primary or gynecological) visits among women with and without a diagnosis of psychosis, substance use disorder, bipolar disorder or mania, or depression.
Using data about women (N=105,681) enrolled in Maryland's Medicaid program in fiscal year 2005, the authors constructed logistic models with cancer screening and acute care visits as dependent variables and serious mental illness flags as independent variables. Covariates were age, race, geography, Medicaid eligibility category, and sexually transmitted diseases. The logistic model of cervical cancer screening outcomes was repeated with acute care visits as a covariate.
Women with psychosis (N=4,747), bipolar disorder or mania (N=3,319), or depression (N=5,014) were significantly (p<.05) more likely than women in a control group without such disorders (N=85,375) to receive cancer screening (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) range=1.46-1.78) and to have associated acute care visits (AOR range=1.45-2.15). Compared with those in the control group, women with a substance use disorder, with (N=1,104) or without (N=6,122) psychosis, demonstrated reduced odds of cancer screening (AOR=.80) but similar odds of acute care visits (AOR=1.04). Acute care visits were strongly correlated with cancer screens. Genital cancer prevalence did not significantly differ among diagnostic groups.
In Maryland Medicaid, the odds of cancer screening and related acute care visits were greater for women with major mental disorders compared with women in the control group. For women with substance use disorders, however, screening was reduced and acute care visits were similar compared with women in the control group. Providers should encourage and support their patients with substance use disorders to increase use of preventive care services by primary care physicians and gynecologists.
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ABSTRACT: Buprenorphine maintenance therapy (BMT) expands treatment access for opioid dependence and can be integrated into primary health-care settings. Treating opioid dependence, however, should ideally improve other aspects of overall health, including preventive services. Therefore, we examined how BMT affects preventive health-care outcomes, specifically nine nationally recommended primary care quality health-care indicators (QHIs), within federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) from an observational cohort study of 266 opioid-dependent patients initiating BMT between 07/01/07 and 11/30/08 within Connecticut's largest FQHC network. Nine nationally recommended preventive QHIs were collected longitudinally from electronic health records, including screening for chronic infections, metabolic conditions, and cancer. A composite QHI score (QHI-S), based on the percentage of eligible QHIs achieved, was categorized as QHI-S ≥80 % (recommended) and ≥90 % (optimal). The proportion of subjects achieving a composite QHI-S ≥80 and ≥90 % was 57.1 and 28.6 %, respectively. Screening was highest for hypertension (91.0 %), hepatitis C (80.1 %), hepatitis B (76.3 %), human immunodeficiency virus (71.4 %), and hyperlipidemia (72.9 %) and lower for syphilis (49.3 %) and cervical (58.5 %), breast (44.4 %), and colorectal (48.7 %) cancer. Achieving QHI-S ≥80 % was positively and independently associated with ≥3-month BMT retention (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.19; 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.18-4.04) and BMT prescription by primary care providers (PCPs) rather than addiction psychiatric specialists (AOR = 3.38; 95 % CI = 1.78-6.37), and negatively with being female (AOR = 0.30; 95 % CI = 0.16-0.55). Within primary health-care settings, achieving greater nationally recommended health-care screenings or QHIs was associated with being able to successfully retain patients on buprenorphine longer (3 months or more) and when buprenorphine was prescribed simultaneously by PCPs rather than psychiatric specialists. Decreased preventive screening for opioid-dependent women, however, may require gender-based strategies for achieving health-care parity. When patients can be retained, integrating BMT into urban FQHCs is associated with improved health outcomes including increased multiple preventive health-care screenings.Journal of Urban Health 12/2014; 92(1). DOI:10.1007/s11524-014-9924-1 · 1.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study examined the use of the Pap cervical cancer screening test among women with mental disabilities in Taiwan and analyzed factors related thereto. Data were obtained from three national databases in Taiwan: the 2008 database of physically and mentally disabled persons from the Ministry of the Interior, 2007-2008 Pap smear test data from the Health Promotion Administration, and claims data from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The study subjects included 49,642 Taiwanese women aged ≥30 years with mental disabilities. Besides descriptive and bivariate analyses, logistic regression analysis was also performed to examine factors affecting Pap smear use. In 2007-2008, Taiwanese women with mental disabilities had a Pap screening rate of 11.05%. Age, income, education, marital status, catastrophic illness/injury, relevant chronic illnesses, and severity of disability were identified as factors affecting their Pap smear use. Age and severity of disability were negatively correlated with Pap screening, with the odds of screening being 0.37 times as high in ≥70-year-olds as in 30-39-year-olds and 0.49 times as high for very severe disability as for mild disability. Income was positively correlated with Pap screening. Being married (OR=2.55) or divorced or widowed (OR=2.40) relative to being unmarried, and having a catastrophic illness/injury (OR=1.13), cancer (OR=1.47), or diabetes (OR=1.25), were associated with greater odds of screening. In Taiwan, women with mental disabilities receive Pap smears at a far lower rate than women in general. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Research in Developmental Disabilities 11/2014; 36C:491-497. DOI:10.1016/j.ridd.2014.10.040 · 3.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE This study sought to describe Medicaid disenrollment rates and risk factors among young adults after discharge from inpatient psychiatric treatment. METHODS The sample included 1,176 Medicaid-enrolled young adults ages 18 to 26 discharged from inpatient psychiatric care in a mid-Atlantic state. Medicaid disenrollment in the 365 days postdischarge and disenrollment predictors from the 180-day predischarge period (antecedent period) were identified from administrative records. Classification and regression tree and probit regression analysis were used. RESULTS Thirty-two percent were disenrolled from Medicaid within a year of discharge. Both analytical approaches converged on four main risk factors: being in the Medicaid enrollment category for persons with a nondisabled low-income parent or for a child in a low-income household, being age 18 or 20 at discharge, having a Medicaid enrollment gap in the antecedent period, and having no primary care utilization in the antecedent period. For the 48% of the sample continuously enrolled in the antecedent period who were in the enrollment categories for disabled adults or foster care children, the disenrollment rate was 13%. CONCLUSIONS A substantial minority of Medicaid-enrolled young adults discharged from inpatient care were disenrolled from Medicaid within a year. About half the sample had a low disenrollment risk, but the other half was at substantial risk. Risk factors largely reflected legal status changes that occur among these transition-age youths. Identifying inpatients at high risk of disenrollment and ensuring continuous coverage should improve access to needed postdischarge supports. Regular primary care visits may also help reduce unintended Medicaid disenrollment in this population.Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.) 01/2014; DOI:10.1176/appi.ps.201300199 · 1.99 Impact Factor