Association between small dense LDL, HDL subfractions (HDL2, HDL3) and risk of atherosclerosis in Japanese-Americans

Department of Molecular and Internal Medicine, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Japan.
Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis (Impact Factor: 2.77). 05/2012; 19(5):444-52. DOI: 10.5551/jat.11445
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Small dense low-density lipoprotein (sdLDL) has been suggested to be more atherogenic than large buoyant LDL. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) consists of two major subfractions (HDL2, HDL3), and just as controversy remains regarding which of the two is the more powerful negative risk factor for atherosclerosis, associations between sdLDL and these HDL subfractions are unclear.
We measured sdLDL cholesterol (sdLDL-C), HDL2 cholesterol (HDL2-C) and HDL3 cholesterol (HDL3-C) by a newly developed method in 481 Japanese-Americans who were not using lipid-lowering medication, and examined the associations of these cholesterol concentrations with variables related to atherosclerosis.
In multivariate analysis, sdLDL-C was positively correlated with the body mass index (BMI), fasting glucose and insulin, 2-h glucose, HOMA-IR, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) after adjustment for age and sex. In particular, sdLDL-C was positively correlated with IMT, even after adjustment for sex, age, smoking status, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hsCRP. HDL2-C was more closely inversely correlated than total HDL-C with BMI, fasting glucose and insulin, 2-h glucose, HOMA-IR, and hsCRP, whereas HDL3-C was not correlated with these factors. Additionally, HDL2-C was more closely correlated than total HDL-C or HDL3-C with sdLDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides (TG), and apolipoprotein B (apoB).
SdLDL-C was closely associated with insulin resistance and glucose tolerance, lending credence to its potential as a useful risk marker in assessing carotid artery IMT and the present degree of atherosclerosis in Japanese-Americans. The findings also suggest that subjects with higher HDL2-C levels were better protected from atherosclerosis.

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Available from: Masayasu Yoneda, Jun 26, 2015
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    • "Using NMR, the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis [22] showed that, compared with total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol, abnormalities in HDL-C and sdLDL-C are more strongly and consistently associated with common carotid artery IMT in patients with moderate chronic kidney disease. Regarding sdLDL-C quantification by simple precipitation methods, Shoji et al. reported that carotid artery IMT was strongly correlated with sdLDL-C in subjects with dyslipidemia , diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease, as well as in smokers [23]. Notably, sdLDL-C concentrations were found to be positively correlated with carotid artery IMT as measured by homogenous assay only in Japanese Americans [21]. "
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    • "Several studies have showed that there are higher level of sdLDL particles in the patients with lipid abnormality including metabolic syndrome, diabetes and CAD, conditions that are accompanied by dyslipidemia (Arai et al. 2013; Geiss et al. 2001; Kockx and Herman 2000; Kwon et al. 2006; Maeda et al. 2012; Musunuru 2010; Shoji et al. 2009; Superko 2009; Tziakas et al. 2008). In our study, sdLDL fraction was clearly increased in MTDs whereas LbLDL particle level was slightly decreased, although statistically insignificant in both dyslipidemic subgroups. "
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