Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation is associated with free-living activity energy expenditure in the elderly

California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, 94107, USA.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (Impact Factor: 4.66). 05/2012; 1817(9):1691-1700. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbabio.2012.05.012
Source: PubMed


The decline in activity energy expenditure underlies a range of age-associated pathological conditions, neuromuscular and neurological impairments, disability, and mortality. The majority (90%) of the energy needs of the human body are met by mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). OXPHOS is dependent on the coordinated expression and interaction of genes encoded in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. We examined the role of mitochondrial genomic variation in free-living activity energy expenditure (AEE) and physical activity levels (PAL) by sequencing the entire (~16.5 kilobases) mtDNA from 138 Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study participants. Among the common mtDNA variants, the hypervariable region 2 m.185G>A variant was significantly associated with AEE (p=0.001) and PAL (p=0.0005) after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Several unique nonsynonymous variants were identified in the extremes of AEE with some occurring at highly conserved sites predicted to affect protein structure and function. Of interest is the p.T194M, CytB substitution in the lower extreme of AEE occurring at a residue in the Qi site of complex III. Among participants with low activity levels, the burden of singleton variants was 30% higher across the entire mtDNA and OXPHOS complex I when compared to those having moderate to high activity levels. A significant pooled variant association across the hypervariable 2 region was observed for AEE and PAL. These results suggest that mtDNA variation is associated with free-living AEE in older persons and may generate new hypotheses by which specific mtDNA complexes, genes, and variants may contribute to the maintenance of activity levels in late life.

Download full-text


Available from: Jennifer S Yokoyama, Aug 27, 2014
  • Source
    • "The determinants of AEE in elderly are poorly understood. Recently, mitochondrial DNA variation was shown to be associated with free-living AEE in older persons suggesting that specific mitochondrial DNA complexes, genes, and variants may contribute to the maintenance of activity levels in late life (Tranah et al., 2012). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Protein-energy homeostasis is a major determinant of healthy aging. Inadequate nutritional intakes and physical activity, together with endocrine disturbances are associated with of sarcopenia and frailty. Guidelines from scientific societies mainly address the quantitative aspects of protein and energy nutrition in elderly. Besides these quantitative aspects of protein load, perspective strategies to promote muscle protein synthesis and prevent sarcopenia include pulse feeding, the use of fast proteins and the addition of leucine or citrulline to dietary protein. An integrated management of sarcopenia, taking into account the determinants of muscle wasting, i.e. nutrition, physical activity, anabolic factors such as androgens, vitamin D and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids status needs to be tested in the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia. The importance of physical activity, specifically resistance training, is emphasized, not only in order to facilitate muscle protein anabolism but also to increase appetite and food intake in elderly people at risk of malnutrition. According to present data, healthy nutrition in elderly should respect the guidelines for protein and energy requirement, privilege a Mediterranean way of alimentation, and be associated with a regular physical activity. Further issues relates to the identification of the genetics determinants of protein energy wasting in elderly.
    Mechanisms of ageing and development 01/2014; 136-137. DOI:10.1016/j.mad.2014.01.008 · 3.40 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial dysfunction is a prominent hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage may be a major cause of abnormal reactive oxidative species production in AD or increased neuronal susceptibility to oxidative injury during aging. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of mtDNA sequence variation on clinically significant cognitive impairment and dementia risk in the population-based Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study. We first investigated the role of common mtDNA haplogroups and individual variants on dementia risk and 8-year change on the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS) and Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) among 1,631 participants of European genetic ancestry. Participants were free of dementia at baseline and incidence was determined in 273 cases from hospital and medication records over 10-12 follow-up years. Participants from haplogroup T had a statistically significant increased risk of developing dementia (OR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.23, 2.82, p = 0.0008) and haplogroup J participants experienced a statistically significant 8-year decline in 3MS (β = -0.14, 95% CI = -0.27, -0.03, p = 0.0006), both compared with common haplogroup H. The m.15244A>G, p.G166G, CytB variant was associated with a significant decline in DSST score (β = -0.58, 95% CI -0.89, -0.28, p = 0.00019) and the m.14178T>C, p.I166V, ND6 variant was associated with a significant decline in 3MS score (β = -0.87, 95% CI -1.31, -3.86, p = 0.00012). Finally, we sequenced the complete ~16.5 kb mtDNA from 135 Health ABC participants and identified several highly conserved and potentially functional nonsynonymous variants unique to 22 dementia cases and aggregate sequence variation across the hypervariable 2-3 regions that influences 3MS and DSST scores.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 07/2012; 32(2):357-72. DOI:10.3233/JAD-2012-120466 · 4.15 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial dysfunction occurs early in the course of several neurodegenerative diseases, and is potentially related to increased oxidative damage and amyloid-beta (Abeta) formation in Alzheimer's disease. The goals of this study were to assess mtDNA sequence associations with dementia risk, 10-year cognitive change, and markers of oxidative stress and Abeta among 1089 African-Americans in the population-based Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study. Participants were free of dementia at baseline, and incidence was determined in 187 (18%) cases over 10 to 12 follow-up years. Haplogroup L1 participants were at increased risk for developing dementia (odds ratio = 1.88, 95% confidence interval = 1.23-2.88, p = 0.004), lower plasma Abeta42 levels (p = 0.03), and greater 10-year decline on the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (p = 0.04) when compared with common haplogroup L3. The p.V193I, ND2 substitution was associated with significantly higher Abeta42 levels (p = 0.0012), and this association was present in haplogroup L3 (p = 0.018) but not L1 (p = 0.90) participants. All associations were independent of potential confounders, including APOEepsilon4 status and nuclear genetic ancestry. Identification of mtDNA sequence variation associated with dementia risk and cognitive decline may contribute to the development of new treatment targets and diagnostic tests that identify responders to interventions targeting mitochondria.
    Neurobiology of aging 11/2013; 35(2). DOI:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2013.05.023 · 5.01 Impact Factor
Show more