Inhibition of complex I regulates the mitochondrial permeability transition through a phosphate-sensitive inhibitory site masked by cyclophilin D.
ABSTRACT Inhibition of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP) has proved to be an effective strategy for preventing oxidative stress-induced cell death, and the pore represents a viable cellular target for drugs. Here, we report that inhibition of complex I by rotenone is more effective at PTP inhibition than cyclosporin A in tissues that express low levels of the cyclosporin A mitochondrial target, cyclophilin D; and, conversely, that tissues in which rotenone does not affect the PTP are characterized by high levels of expression of cyclophilin D and sensitivity to cyclosporin A. Consistent with a regulatory role of complex I in the PTP-inhibiting effects of rotenone, the concentrations of the latter required for PTP inhibition precisely match those required to inhibit respiration; and a similar effect is seen with the antidiabetic drug metformin, which partially inhibits complex I. Remarkably (i) genetic ablation of cyclophilin D or its displacement with cyclosporin A restored PTP inhibition by rotenone in tissues that are otherwise resistant to its effects; and (ii) rotenone did not inhibit the PTP unless phosphate was present, in striking analogy with the phosphate requirement for the inhibitory effects of cyclosporin A [Basso et al. (2008) J. Biol. Chem. 283, 26307-26311]. These results indicate that inhibition of complex I by rotenone or metformin and displacement of cyclophilin D by cyclosporin A affect the PTP through a common mechanism; and that cells can modulate their PTP response to complex I inhibition by modifying the expression of cyclophilin D, a finding that has major implications for pore modulation in vivo.
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ABSTRACT: We recently developed a clinically relevant mini-swine model of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), in which diastolic dysfunction was associated with increased mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT). Early diastolic function is ATP and Ca2+-dependent, thus, we hypothesized chronic low doses of cyclosporine (CsA) would preserve mitochondrial function via inhibition of MPT and subsequently maintain normal cardiomyocyte Ca2+ handling and contractile characteristics. Left ventricular cardiomyocytes were isolated from aortic-banded Yucatan mini-swine divided into three groups; control nonbanded (CON), HFpEF nontreated (HF), and HFpEF treated with CsA (HF-CsA). CsA mitigated the deterioration of mitochondrial function observed in HF animals, including functional uncoupling of Complex I-dependent mitochondrial respiration and increased susceptibility to MPT. Attenuation of mitochondrial dysfunction in the HF-CsA group was not associated with commensurate improvement in cardiomyocyte Ca2+ handling or contractility. Ca2+ transient amplitude was reduced and transient time to peak and recovery (tau) prolonged in HF and HF-CsA groups compared to CON. Alterations in Ca2+ transient parameters observed in the HF and HF-CsA groups were associated with decreased cardiomyocyte shortening and shortening rate. Cellular function was consistent with impaired in vivo systolic and diastolic whole heart function. A significant systemic hypertensive response to CsA was observed in HF-CsA animals, and may have played a role in the accelerated the development of heart failure at both the whole heart and cellular levels. Given the significant detriment to cardiac function observed in response to CsA, our findings suggest chronic CsA treatment is not a viable therapeutic option for HFpEF.Physiological Reports. 06/2014; 2(6).
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ABSTRACT: The isothiourea derivative, KB-R7943, inhibits the reverse-mode of the plasma membrane sodium/calcium exchanger and protects against ischemia/reperfusion injury. The mechanism through which KB-R7943 confers protection, however, remains controversial. Recently, KB-R7943 has been shown to inhibit mitochondrial calcium uptake and matrix overload, which may contribute to its protective effects. While using KB-R7943 for this purpose, we find here no evidence that KB-R7943 directly blocks mitochondrial calcium uptake. Rather, we find that KB-R7943 inhibits opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in permeabilized cells and isolated liver mitochondria. Furthermore, we find that this observation correlates with protection against calcium ionophore-induced mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization and cell death, without detrimental effects to basal mitochondrial membrane potential or complex I-dependent mitochondrial respiration. Our data reveal another mechanism through which KB-R7943 may protect against calcium-induced injury, as well as a novel means to inhibit the mitochondrial permeability transition pore.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 01/2014; · 2.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background This study aims to test the hypothesis whether lowering glycemia improves mitochondrial function and thereby attenuates apoptotic cell death during resuscitated murine septic shock. Methods Immediately and 6 h after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), mice randomly received either vehicle or the anti-diabetic drug EMD008 (100 μg · g-1). At 15 h post CLP, mice were anesthetized, mechanically ventilated, instrumented and rendered normo- or hyperglycemic (target glycemia 100 ± 20 and 180 ± 50 mg · dL-1, respectively) by infusing stable, non-radioactive isotope-labeled 13C6-glucose. Target hemodynamics was achieved by colloid fluid resuscitation and continuous i.v. noradrenaline, and mechanical ventilation was titrated according to blood gases and pulmonary compliance measurements. Gluconeogenesis and glucose oxidation were derived from blood and expiratory glucose and 13CO2 isotope enrichments, respectively; mathematical modeling allowed analyzing isotope data for glucose uptake as a function of glycemia. Postmortem liver tissue was analyzed for HO-1, AMPK, caspase-3, and Bax (western blotting) expression as well as for mitochondrial respiratory activity (high-resolution respirometry). Results Hyperglycemia lowered mitochondrial respiratory capacity; EMD008 treatment was associated with increased mitochondrial respiration. Hyperglycemia decreased AMPK phosphorylation, and EMD008 attenuated both this effect as well as the expression of activated caspase-3 and Bax. During hyperglycemia EMD008 increased HO-1 expression. During hyperglycemia, maximal mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation rate was directly related to HO-1 expression, while it was unrelated to AMPK activation. According to the mathematical modeling, EMD008 increased the slope of glucose uptake plotted as a function of glycemia. Conclusions During resuscitated, polymicrobial, murine septic shock, glycemic control either by reducing glucose infusion rates or EMD008 improved glucose uptake and thereby liver tissue mitochondrial respiratory activity. EMD008 effects were more pronounced during hyperglycemia and coincided with attenuated markers of apoptosis. The effects of glucose control were at least in part due to the up-regulation of HO-1 and activation of AMPK. Keywords: Gluconeogenesis; Glucose uptake; Glucose oxidation; Mitochondrial respiration; Apoptosis; AMPK; HO-1Intensive care medicine experimental. 06/2014;