Inhibition of complex I regulates the mitochondrial permeability transition through a phosphate-sensitive inhibitory site masked by cyclophilin D.

Inserm, U1060 (CARMEN) at the University Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Lyon, F-69373, France.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (Impact Factor: 4.66). 05/2012; 1817(9):1628-34. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbabio.2012.05.011
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Inhibition of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP) has proved to be an effective strategy for preventing oxidative stress-induced cell death, and the pore represents a viable cellular target for drugs. Here, we report that inhibition of complex I by rotenone is more effective at PTP inhibition than cyclosporin A in tissues that express low levels of the cyclosporin A mitochondrial target, cyclophilin D; and, conversely, that tissues in which rotenone does not affect the PTP are characterized by high levels of expression of cyclophilin D and sensitivity to cyclosporin A. Consistent with a regulatory role of complex I in the PTP-inhibiting effects of rotenone, the concentrations of the latter required for PTP inhibition precisely match those required to inhibit respiration; and a similar effect is seen with the antidiabetic drug metformin, which partially inhibits complex I. Remarkably (i) genetic ablation of cyclophilin D or its displacement with cyclosporin A restored PTP inhibition by rotenone in tissues that are otherwise resistant to its effects; and (ii) rotenone did not inhibit the PTP unless phosphate was present, in striking analogy with the phosphate requirement for the inhibitory effects of cyclosporin A [Basso et al. (2008) J. Biol. Chem. 283, 26307-26311]. These results indicate that inhibition of complex I by rotenone or metformin and displacement of cyclophilin D by cyclosporin A affect the PTP through a common mechanism; and that cells can modulate their PTP response to complex I inhibition by modifying the expression of cyclophilin D, a finding that has major implications for pore modulation in vivo.

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