Plasma lipoproteins play important roles in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Two widely used mouse models of experimental atherosclerosis, apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE -/-) and LDL receptor-deficient (LDLr -/-) mice, have major differences in lipoprotein characteristics. These include differences in lipoprotein cholesterol distribution, lipoprotein compositions, apoliporoteins distribution, and susceptibility to oxidation. In the present study, we compared pulmonary and cardiovascular responses of ApoE -/- and LDLr -/- mice to sidestream cigarette smoke (SSCS) exposure to determine if strain differences influence their predisposition to SSCS-mediated promotion of atherosclerosis. Female ApoE -/- and LDLr -/- mice were maintained on a saturated fat enriched diet and exposed to SSCS in whole body exposure chambers for 15 weeks (4h/day, 5 days/week). At terminations, the levels of pulmonary injury markers in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids from 6 mice per group and atherosclerotic lesion formation in 14 mice per group were analyzed. Total BAL cells and polymorphonuclear leukocytes were not significantly altered by SSCS exposure in both mouse models. Total protein, LDH, and cytokine concentrations in cell-free BAL fluids were also not significantly affected by chronic SSCS exposure in either mouse strain. SSCS significantly reduced surfactant protein D levels in both strains to a similar extent. However, SSCS exposure increased significantly the percent atherosclerotic lesion areas covering aortic intimal surfaces of ApoE -/- (control-25.3±1.52 vs. SSCS-31.9±2.02, p=0.012) as well as in LDLr -/- (control-30.97±1.1 vs. SSCS-36.61±1.7, p=0.028) mice. In contrast, the serum cholesterol concentrations of SSCS-exposed ApoE -/- mice were similar to that of controls (control-1255±85 vs. SSCS-1190±61mg/dl, p=0.552) but increased significantly in SSCS-exposed LDLr -/- mice (control-998±114 vs. SSCS-1577±142mg/dl, p=0.008). These results showing different effects of identical SSCS exposure on plasma cholesterol concentrations in these two mouse models suggest a role of multiple mechanisms in SSCS-induced atherosclerosis.
"For personal use only. previous studies (Han et al., 2012). We assumed that A/J mice are appropriate for evaluating toxic responses from combined exposure of toxicants because this mouse strain is widely used in studies for tobacco-induced pulmonary toxic responses. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Due to their unique properties, nano-sized carbon materials are predicted to have numerous applications in industry, but significant evidence exists to suggest their potential to cause toxicity. To determine if pre-exposure to side-stream cigarette smoke (SSCS) influences their toxicity, we examined the pulmonary response of smoke-exposed mice to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Female A/J mice were exposed to SSCS in a whole body exposure chamber at approximately 40 mg/m(3) for 4 weeks (6 h/d, 5 d/wk) and challenged with a single dose of MWCNT (40 µg) by the pharyngeal aspiration technique. A total of four groups were compared: air/phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-control, SSCS/PBS, air/MWCNT, and SSCS/MWCNT. At days 1 and 3 post-MWCNT treatment, lung tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected and analyzed. In comparison with controls, significantly higher levels of total BAL cells were obtained from mice exposed to SSCS and MWCNT alone or combination. Influx of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) into BALF greatly increased in MWCNT alone and SSCS/MWCNT groups at both days 1 and 3 compared with controls. However, pre-exposure to SSCS significantly suppressed PMN response to MWCNT on day 1 but not day 3. Total BALF protein, lactate dehydrogenase, and mucin were significantly elevated in MWCNT and SSCS/MWCNT groups but not in the SSCS group, except mucin at day 3, when compared with controls. These results demonstrate that MWCNT markedly increases pulmonary toxicity in mice and SSCS pre-exposure plays a minor role in modulating MWCNT-induced lung toxicity at the concentrations and time points selected in the present study.
"However, in this study the effect on atherosclerosis was not examined. Collectively these studies in hyperlipidemic mice show that long-term CS exposure increases atherosclerotic lesion area, most likely due to effects on plasma lipid levels , , but do not provide an explanation for the link between COPD and CVD. Therefore our study contributes to the existing information by showing that emphysema per se does not affect atherosclerosis development. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by pulmonary inflammation, airways obstruction and emphysema, and is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the contribution of these individual COPD components to this increased risk is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the contribution of emphysema in the presence or absence of pulmonary inflammation to the increased risk of CVD, using a mouse model for atherosclerosis. Because smoke is a known risk factor for both COPD and CVD, emphysema was induced by intratracheal instillation of porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE).
Hyperlipidemic APOE*3-Leiden mice were intratracheally instilled with vehicle, 15 or 30 µg PPE and after 4 weeks, mice received a Western-type diet (WTD). To study the effect of emphysema combined with pulmonary inflammation on atherosclerosis, mice received 30 µg PPE and during WTD feeding, mice were intranasally instilled with vehicle or low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1 µg/mouse, twice weekly). After 20 weeks WTD, mice were sacrificed and emphysema, pulmonary inflammation and atherosclerosis were analysed.
Intratracheal PPE administration resulted in a dose-dependent increase in emphysema, whereas atherosclerotic lesion area was not affected by PPE treatment. Additional low-dose intranasal LPS administration induced a low-grade systemic IL-6 response, as compared to vehicle. Combining intratracheal PPE with intranasal LPS instillation significantly increased the number of pulmonary macrophages and neutrophils. Plasma lipids during the study were not different. LPS instillation caused a limited, but significant increase in the atherosclerotic lesion area. This increase was not further enhanced by PPE.
This study shows for the first time that PPE-induced emphysema both in the presence and absence of pulmonary inflammation does not affect atherosclerotic lesion development.
PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e80196. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0080196 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"They are, however, often studied in isolation and the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in COPD patients is often underestimated (Nussbaumer-Ochsner and Rabe, 2011). It is therefore very important to study endpoints that reflect both lung disease and CVD in models exposed to cigarette smoke, as was demonstrated recently by Han et al. (2012). We have previously reported the use of ApoE −/− mice to investigate the effects of mainstream cigarette smoke (CS) on plaque development (von Holt et al., 2009). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cigarette smoking is the primary etiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and a risk factor for both lung and cardiovascular (CV) diseases, which are rarely investigated concomitantly. Although smoking cessation shows clear CV risk benefit, lung-related disease risk remains higher in former smokers than in never smokers. We sought to determine the differential molecular responses of murine respiratory tissues to better understand the toxicity pathways involved in smoking-related disease risk and those related to the benefits of smoking cessation. ApoE(-/-) mice were exposed to mainstream cigarette smoke (CS) or a smoking cessation-mimicking protocol for up to six months and transcriptomics analysis of nasal epithelium and lung parenchyma performed. We supported our gene expression profiling approach with standard lung histopathology and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) analysis. Many BALF analytes involved in functions ranging from inflammation to cell proliferation and tissue remodeling were found elevated in BALF. Gene expression levels of these molecules were also increased in lung tissue, suggesting that the inflammatory response was the result of local tissue activation and the contribution of recruited inflammatory cells. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of expression data from murine lungs and nasal epithelium showed distinct activation patterns of inflammation, complement, and xenobiotic metabolism pathways during CS exposure that were deactivated upon smoking cessation. Pathways involved in cell proliferation and tissue remodeling were activated by CS and progressively deactivated upon smoke exposure cessation. Differential CS-mediated responses of pulmonary and nasal tissues reflect common mechanisms but also the varying degrees of epithelial functional specialization and exposure along the respiratory tract.
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